Roman Law

See Civil Law.


See Roumelia.


See Russia.

Romulus Augustulus

Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor of the West. He was placed on the throne A. D. 475, by his father Orestes, a native of Pannonia, who had been a favorite of the emperor Julius Nepos, but who at last •succeeded in usurping the power of his patron, and conferring it upon his son. The young man was remarkable only for his weakness and the beauty of his person. On the defeat of Orestes by Odoacer at Pavia, and his subsequent execution (476), Augustulus was banished to the castle of Lucullus in Campania, where he received yearly 6,000 pieces of gold.

Romulus Augustulus #1

See Western Empire.

Roncesvalles, Or Roncesvaux

Roncesvalles, Or Roncesvaux, a small hamlet in the valley of Valcarlos in Navarre, between Pamplona and St. Jean Pied de Port in France. It commands the entrance to one of the passes of the Pyrenees; Charlemagne, returning from an invasion of Spain, was here attacked by the Basque mountaineers and lost his whole rear guard, A. D. 778. The numerous local ballads and romances of the middle ages, in which are related on one side the exploits of the legendary Spanish hero, Bernardo del Carpio, and on the other those of Roland, Oliver, and the other "peers and paladins" of Charlemagne's court who fell in the encounter, have given a character to the place which history cannot easily remove. (See Roland.) Through this pass the Black Prince led his army into Spain in 1367; and in July, 1813, Soult was forced from a strong position he had taken here by Wellington. Here Don Carlos was proclaimed king in 1833.


Ronda (anc. Arunda), a city of Andalusia, Spain, in the province of Malaga, 86 m. W. S. W. of Granada; pop. about 19,300. It is built upon a high rock, nearly surrounded by the river Guadiaro, which separates the town by a deep chasm, crossed by two bridges, into two parts. Cotton and woollen cloth, cutlery, and other articles are manufactured, and there is an active trade in horses, mules, and especially in crucifixes, which are exported from here to all parts of Spain. The annual fair in May is one of the most animated in Spain. Ronda is of great antiquity. Under the Moors it was the principal fortress of Granada, and it is still protected by a Moorish castle. In 1485 it was conquered by Spain.


Rondo (It.), in music, a composition consisting of three strains, the first of which, forming the burden, closes in the original key, while the others lead the ear easily and naturally back to it. The piece derives its name from the melody going round through the second and third strains to the first.


See Kingston, N. Y.

Rosa Vertner (Jeffrey)

(Jeffrey) Vertner Rosa, an American authoress, born near Natchez, Miss. She is the daughter of John Griffith, but was adopted by an aunt, whose name Vertner she took. She was educated in the seminary under the charge of Bishop Smith, in Lexington, Ky. She married Claude M. Johnson, and after his death Alexander Jeffrey of Lexington, where she now resides (1876). In 1850 she became a contributor to the Louisville "Journal," and afterward to numerous periodicals, and in 1857 a volume of her poems was published in Boston. She has also published "Woodburn," a novel (New York, 1864), and several tales and poems under the signature of Rosa, which have not been collected.