Saint-German, Or St. Germain-En-Laye

Saint-German, Or St. Germain-En-Laye, a town of France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, 8 m. W. of the enceinte of Paris; pop. in 1872, 22,862. It was long a royal residence, and is now a fashionable summer resort. James H. of England died here. The revolution converted the palace into barracks; Napoleon I. made it a military prison, and Napoleon III. a museum of antiquities. Adjoining it is one of the largest forests in France.

Saint-Malo

Saint-Malo, a fortified town of Brittany, France, in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, on the rocky peninsula of Aron, near the mouth of the Rance in the bay of St. Malo, 40 m. N. N. W. of Rennes; pop. in 1872, 12,316. It is connected with the mainland by a causeway called the Sillon. The harbor is large and safe, but encumbered by shoals at its entrance, and the tide rises sometimes to the height of 45 ft., while at low water the port is dry. The town is largely engaged in fisheries, and has an active trade with England. The cargoes cleared in 1874 from St. Malo and the adjoining port of St. Servan, in sailing ships only, amounted to 4,402,600 francs. Lamennais was born here, as also Chateaubriand, whose tomb is on a rock in the harbor. A monument to him by Millet was erected Sept. 5, 1875, in the place St. Vincent, since known as place Chateaubriand.

Saint-Marc Girardin

See Girardin.

Saint-Nazaire

Saint-Nazaire, a town of France, in the department of Loire-Inférieure, on the right bank and at the mouth of the Loire, on a promontory between that river and the ocean, 30 m. W. of Nantes; pop. in 1872, 13,536. It consists of an old and a new town; the latter has grown up since the establishment of a floating dock in 1845, as an accessory harbor for large ocean vessels, which cannot enter Nantes. It is a station for the transatlantic steamers to West Indian and other ports.

Saint-Nicolas

Saint-Nicolas, a town of Belgium, in the province of East Flanders, 20 m. E. N. E. of Ghent; pop. about 22,000. It manufactures woollen goods, shawls, and linen, and is one of the greatest flax markets in the world.

Saint-Omer

Saint-Omer, a town of France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, at the junction of the canal of Neuf-Fossé with the river Aa, 130 m. N. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 22,381. It is strongly fortified and has an important artillery arsenal. It is the seat of an archbishop, and has a fine Gothic cathedral of the 14th century. There are also interesting remains of a Benedictine abbey, founded by St. Omer in the 7th century. Woollen goods, paper, leather, hats, distilled liquors, starch, and beet-root sugar are manufactured; and there is a trade in grain, wines, oil, brandy, and coal. A seminary for the education of English and Irish Roman Catholics still exists, taking the place of the celebrated English Jesuit college.

Saintes

Saintes (anc. Santones), a town of France, in the department of Charente-lnférieure, on the right bank of the Charente, 36 m. N. W. of La Rochelle; pop. in 1872, 9,998. It has many Roman antiquities, and a renovated cathedral which originated with Charlemagne. The crypt of the church of St. Eutrope forms the largest subterranean chapel in France. The trade is chiefly in wine, brandy, and grain. It is of great antiquity, and was one of the principal cities of Aquitania. In the middle ages it was the capital of the province of Saintonge. It suffered much during the religious wars.