Salerno (anc. Salernum), a town of S. Italy, capital of the province of Principato Cite-riore or Salerno (see Principato Citeriore), at the head of the gulf of Salerno in the Mediterranean, 30 m. S. E. of Naples; pop. in 1872, 27,759. The port, long nearly filled up with sand, has been improved since 1868. The cathedral, begun about 1080 on the site of an older edifice, contains the remains of Pope Gregory VII., and according to tradition also those of St. Matthew, to whom it is dedicated. The university of Salerno, especially celebrated in the middle ages for its school of medicine, was replaced in 1817 by a lyceum. - Salernum was originally founded by the Greeks or Tyrrhenians, and received a Roman colony in 194 B. C. It was some time the residence of the Lombard duke of Benevento, in 840 became an independent principality, in 1077 was captured by Robert Guiscard and made the capital of the duchy of Apulia, and afterward passed to the kingdom of Naples.
Salians, Or Salic Franks, a tribe of Germans, who in the 5th century invaded Gaul, and by its conquest under Clovis founded the French monarchy. (See Franks.) Their code of law was called the Salic. (See Code, vol. v., p. 7.) - Salic land (terra Salica or dominicata) was a name given to an estate subject to no burden, depending upon no superior, and upon which the manor house of the master was situated. Later the title was applied also to inherited landed property as distinct from acquired possessions, and by the Salic law females were excluded from inheriting this species of property. This last feature of their law has always prevailed in France with respect to the crown, as it did in Spain under the Bourbon line till 1830, when it was abolished in favor of Isabella. The German emperors of the house of Franconia, from Conrad II. to Henry V. (1024-1125), are designated as Salians.
Robert Cecil, earl of. See Cecil.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, third marquis and eighth earl of, an English statesman, born Feb. 13, 1830. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and from 1853 to 1868 was member of parliament for Stamford, being at first called Lord Robert Cecil, and after the death of his elder brother in 1865 Viscount Cranborne. In 1866-'7 he was secretary of state and president of the council for India. He succeeded to the peerage April 12, 1868. On the death of the earl of Derby, Oct. 23, 1869, Salisbury succeeded him as chancellor of the university of Oxford. In February, 1874, he became a member of Disraeli's administration as secretary of state for India. He is one of the most influential representatives of the tory party.
Salisbury, Or New Sarum, a city of England, capital of Wiltshire, at the junction of the Avon, Wily, and Bourne rivers, 78 m. W. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 12,903. The cathedral was built between 1220 and 1260, by the bishop and canons of Old Sarum, 2 m. N., which place was in consequence deserted by its inhabitants for the new site. Since 1868 the exterior and interior have been completely restored. The principal manufacture is cutlery. The woollen manufacture, once famous, has become extinct.