See Burns and Scalds.

Scales (Of Fishes)

See Comparative Anatomy.

Scaly Ant-Eater

See Pangolin.


Scamander, a small river of Troas, celebrated by Homer, who says that the gods called it Xanthus, and men Scamander. It probably owed the former name to the yellow or brownish color of its water, which was believed to have the power of tinging the wool of sheep which drank of it. (See Teoy).


Scandinavia, the ancient name of that portion of Europe now comprised in the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and the island of Iceland.


Scansores (Lat. scandere, to climb), an order of birds, comprising such as have the toes in pairs, two before and two behind, the latter being the outer anterior and the hind toes. This arrangement facilitates climbing, as is seen in the families of parrots, toucans, cuckoos, trogons, and woodpeckers. (See Ornithology).


Scarborough, a seaport town of England, in the North riding of Yorkshire, 39 m. N. E. of York; pop. in 1871, 24,259. It is situated on a rocky declivity and along the N. shore of an open bay of the North sea. Its mineral waters are esteemed, and the town is much frequented in summer for sea bathing. It has two public libraries, several fine churches, a theatre, and a remarkable bridge on piers 75 ft. high, and extending over a chasm 400 ft. wide between the town and the spa.


See Fevers, vol. vii., p. 170.


I. Alessandro

Alessandro, an Italian composer, born in Trapani in 1649, died in Naples, Oct. 24, 1725. He was instructed in music by Carissimi, and the introduction of violin accompaniments to airs, the ritornel, and the da capo are ascribed to him. He is said to have produced 200 masses, 100 operas, and 3,000 cantatas.

II. Domenico, A Composer

A Composer Domenico, son of the preceding, born in Naples in 1683, died in Madrid or Naples about 1759. He was chapel-master to the queen of Spain, and produced numerous operas, but is best known by his compositions for the pianoforte, 42 in number, the successful performance of which was long regarded as the greatest test of excellence in a pianist.

Scarlet Fever

See Fevers, vol. vii., p. 170.


Scarpanto (anc. Carpathus), an island of Turkey, in the Mediterranean, 28 m. S. W. of Rhodes, 27 m. long and 6 m. broad; pop. about 5,000. It consists chiefly of bare mountains, the highest about 4,000 ft. Game, cattle, marble, and iron abound. Che coast is generally inaccessible, but there are a number of harbors for small craft. In antiquity it belonged to the Dorians and subsequently to Rhodes.


I. An. Canton Of Switzerland

An. Canton Of Switzerland, bounded S. by the Rhine and the cantons of Zürich and Thurgau, and on all other sides by Baden; area, 116 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 37,721, chiefly Protestants, and all of German origin. The canton is traversed by low ramifications of the Jura range in the wider sense. The climate is healthy and temperate. Agriculture is the principal occupation. The government is democratic. Schaff-hausen joined the Swiss confederation in 1501.

II. A Town

A Town, capital of the canton, on the slope of a hill, on the right bank of the Rhine, 45 m. N. by E. of Zürich; pop. in 1870, 10,303. It is walled and overlooked by an old castle. It has a college, a library, an arsenal, and manufactories of steel ware, railroad carriages, chemicals, and tobacco. About 3 m. below the town are the celebrated falls of the Rhine, from 60 to 75 ft. high.