See Smalcald.


See Philosophy, vol. xiii., p. 439.


See College, Common Schools, Education, Infant Schools, Military Schools, Normal Schools, Reformatories, and University.


Schoolcraft, a county of the upper peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. by Lake Superior and S. E. by Lake Michigan; area, about 2,300 sq. m.; pop. in 1874, 1,290. It is drained by the Manistique river and other streams. The surface is rough and broken, and mostly covered with dense forests of pine. Lumbering is the chief occupation. In 1870 there were two blast furnaces and four saw mills in operation. The "Pictured Rocks," a perpendicular wall many miles long and 200 to 300 ft. high, curiously stratified, are in this county, on the S. shore of Lake Superior. Capital, Onota.

Schrevelius, Or Schrevel, Cornelius

Schrevelius, Or Schrevel, Cornelius, a Dutch scholar, born in Haarlem in 1615, died in Ley-den, Sept. 11, 1664. He succeeded his father as rector of the college in Leyden in 1642. He published variorum editions of many classical authors, and a Lexicon Manuale Graeco-Latinum et Latino-Graecum (1654), which, often republished, has been more extensively used than almost any other work of the kind.

Schwalbach, Or Langenschwalbach

Schwalbach, Or Langenschwalbach, a watering place of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, 8 m. N. W. of Wiesbaden; pop. in 1871, 2,643. It adjoins Schlangenbad, and is celebrated as having the strongest of all chalybeate springs. A new bath house was established in 1866. The number of visitors annually is about 6,000. Large quantities of the water are exported.


See Schwarzenberg.


Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, a principality of the German empire, bordering on the Saxon duchies, the Prussian province of Saxony, and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen; area, 364 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 75,523, nearly all Lutherans. It is divided into the upper lordship of Rudol-stadt, which is mountainous, and the lower of Frankenhausen, which is less so. The main rivers are the Saale, Ilm, and Schwarza. The principal products are minerals and timber. Horses and cattle abound. Linen, woollen, and other goods are manufactured. The diet consists, according to the modified constitution of 1870, of 16 members, 4 chosen from the largest taxpayers and 12 elected by the people. The principality has one vote in the German Reichstag. The local princes, whose house is one of the oldest in Thuringia, became in 1699 independent of Saxony. The reign of the present prince, George Albert (born 1838), began in 1869. Capital, Rudolstadt.


Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, a principality of the German empire, bordering on Prussian Saxony, the Saxon duchies, and Schwarz-burg-Rudolstadt; area, 323 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 67,191. It consists of the upper lordship of Arnstadt and the lower of Sonders-hausen; is mountainous in the S. part, and is watered by the Gera, Ilm, and other tributaries of the Saale. The main products are flax, timber, and minerals. Trade and industry have lately much increased through railway traffic. The prince names 5 members for the local diet, and the other 10 are chosen half by the largest taxpayers and half by general election. In the German Reichstag the principality has one vote. The reigning prince, Gunther Frederick Charles (born 1801), succeeded in 1835 on the resignation of his father. Capital, Sondershausen.