Sebastopol, Or Sevastopol

Sebastopol, Or Sevastopol, a fortified city of Russia, in the Crimea, on a peninsula on the S. side of the roadstead of the same name, an arm of the Black sea, 190 m. S. E. of Odessa; pop. about 12,000. It has a celebrated harbor 3 1/2 m. long and from 700 yards to 1 m. wide. In 1854-'5 the place was invested by the allied English, French, Sardinian, and Turkish armies, and after a protracted siege was taken, Sept. 8, 1855. (See Crimea.) One of the churches was erected by Vladimir I., the first Christian czar, out of the remains of the ancient cities of the Chersonesus. In 1780, when Russia commenced fortifying Sebastopol, it was a small Tartar village named Akhtiar. It became a city remarkable for fine streets, buildings, and quays, and as one of the greatest military harbors in the world; and before the Crimean war it had a population of about 47,000, including many marines and soldiers, but only 4,500 women. Much of it has since been rebuilt.

Second

Second, the 60th part of a minute, whether of an hour or of a degree. The minutes, being the first divisions of these units, are called in the old mathematical treatises "primes," and were marked thus ', the seconds (minutoe se-cunoe) thus ". The next sexagesimal division was called thirds. The time divisions are now commonly marked m. and sec.

Secretion

See Gland.

Secular Games

Secular Games, in Roman history, games celebrated at long and irregular intervals. Under the republic they were known as the Ta-rentine games from a place in the Campus Martius, called Tarentum, where they were celebrated, and appear to have been instituted about the time of the consul Valerius Publico-la. Nothing is known of their origin beyond the fact that they were celebrated in honor of Pluto and Proserpine for the purpose of averting from the state some great calamity. Down to the time of Augustus they were held but three times; they were revived by that emperor in 17 B. C. with considerable pomp, occupying three days and nights, and being accompanied by sacrifices to Jupiter, Juno, and all the superior deities. For this occasion Horace wrote his Carmen Soeculare. The secular games were celebrated in the reign of Claudius in A. D. 47, in that of Domitian in 88, and in that of Philip in 248.

Secularism

See Holyoake, George Jacob.

Sedalia

Sedalia, a town and the county seat of Pettis co., Missouri, on the Missouri Pacific railroad, at the junction of the Lexington branch, and the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas railroad, 189 m. by rail W. of St. Louis, 64 m. W. by N. of Jefferson City, and 94 m. E. S. E. of Kansas City; pop. in 1870, 4,560, of whom 845 Were colored; in 1875, about 8,000. It was laid out in 1860, on one of the highest swells of a rolling prairie. The principal street is 120 ft. wide, is finely shaded, and has many handsome buildings. Sedalia is lighted with gas, and is supplied with water by the Holly system. It has a large and rapidly increasing trade. It contains the shops of the two railroad companies, several founderies and machine shops, flouring mills, and manufactories of agricultural implements, carriages, soap, and woollens. There are three hotels, two national banks, good public schools, a public library and reading room, three daily and four weekly newspapers, and 11 churches.