Sir Joseph Whitworth, an English mechanician, born in Stockport in 1803. He founded the manufacturing firm of Joseph Whitworth and co. in Manchester, and made many inventions and improvements, first becoming generally known by his planing and tool machines exhibited in 1851. He was a commissioner to the international exhibition at New York in 1853. In 1854 he began to manufacture rifles with a hexagonal bore and elongated grooved projectile, and has since applied the same principle to breech-loading cannon. (See Artillery, and Cannon.) He was made a baronet in 1869, and in the same year founded the " Whit worth scholarships " for the encouragement of mechanical and engineering science. They are 30 in number, of £100 a year each, tenable for two or three years. He has published " Miscellaneous Papers on Mechanical Subjects" (1858), and " Papers on Practical Subjects: Guns and Steel" (1873).
Sir Josiah Child, an English merchant, born in London in 1630, died there in 1099. He was for some time chairman of the East India company, and wrote several papers, without signature, in defence of the traffic with the East. In his essay on trade he advocated the compulsory emigration of paupers to the colonies. His principal work is entitled "Brief Observations concerning Trade and the Interest of Money, by J. C." (4to, London, 1068). An enlarged edition was published in 1690, under the title of " A New Discourse on Trade." The work has been several times reprinted. It was written in defence of the reduction, by legal enactment, of the rate of interest on money from 8 to 6 per cent., and recommends a further diminution to 4 per cent. Charles II. made him a baronet. His son became Viscount Castlemaine and Earl Tylney, but the peerage expired with the second earl.
Sir Julius Caesar, an English jurist, of Italian descent, son of a physician to Queens Mary and Elizabeth, born at Tottenham in 1557, died April 28, 1636. After having held high offices during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, he was appointed by James I. chancellor of the exchequer. This office he resigned upon receiving that of master of the rolls, which he retained till his death. He was a strong friend of Bacon, whom he assisted during his trial, and who died in his arms. "Williams, Bacon's successor, having himself had no experience in chancery practice, relied greatly upon Sir Julius's learning and skill. He was remarkable for the gravity of his character, and his reputation for benevolence was so great that his house was as well known to poor people as a hospital. His life was published by Edmund Lodge (royal 4to, London, 1810).
Sir Martin Archer Shee, an English painter, born in Dublin, Dec. 23, 1770, died in Brighton, Aug. 19, 1850. He studied painting in Dublin under F. R. West, and at the age of 16 was a successful portrait painter. In 1788 he went to London, and became a pupil in the royal academy, to the exhibition of which he contributed his first pictures in 1789. In 1798 he was chosen an associate, and in 1800 a member of the royal academy, and in 1830 he became president and was knighted. Shortly before his death he was granted a pension of £200, with succession to his daughters. He published two parts of a poem entitled "Rhymes on Art" (1805, 1809); "The Commemoration of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and other Poems" (1814); "Alasco," a tragedy (1824); "Oldcourt," a novel (1829); and "Outline of a Plan for the National Encouragement of Historical Painting" (1837). His life has been written by his son (2 vols., London, 1860).