See Atlantic Ocean, vol. ii., p. G9, and Dredginc, Deep-Sea.

Sour Gum

See Tupelo.

South Adams

See Adams, Mass.

South America

See America.


See Hampshire.


See Artemisia.

Southwell, Or Sotwell, Nathaniel

Southwell, Or Sotwell, Nathaniel, an English scholar, born in the county of Norfolk about 1600, died in Rome, Dec. 2, 1676. He was educated in the English college at Rome, became a Jesuit, and in 1624 was sent as a missionary priest to England. He returned to Rome in 1627, and from 1637 to 1668 was secretary general of his order. He revised, re-edited, and completed the Bibliotheca Scripto-rum Societatis Jesu, begun by Ribadeneira and continued by Alegambe (fol., Rome, 1676; new ed. by the Jesuit Oudin, Rome, 1745; with supplements, Rome, 1814, 1816). He was also the author of "A Journal of Meditations for Every Day in the Year" (London, 1669).

Spa, Or Spaa

Spa, Or Spaa, a watering place of Belgium, in the province and 16 m. S. E. of the city of Liege, in a beautiful valley of the Ardennes; pop. about 5,000. It is well built, and has several squares and a fine bathing establishment, erected in 18G5. The Pouhon or principal spring is under a colonnade built in honor of Peter the Great, who was here restored to health. The waters are chalybeate, and 150,000 bottles are exported yearly. The annual number of visitors exceeds 16,000.


Spagnoletto, a Spanish painter, whose real name was Jose Ribera, born in San Felipe de Jativa, Jan. 12, 1588, died in Naples in 1656. He was a pupil of Caravaggio, whose peculiar style he followed with enthusiasm, and settled in Naples about 1612. He excelled in chiaroscuro, and delighted in gloomy subjects. His chief works are in Spain, but Naples possesses his "Martyrdom of St. Januarius," "St. Jerome and St. Bruno," and "Descent from the Cross." Among his pupils was Salvator Rosa.


Spalding, a W. county of Georgia, bounded W. by Flint river; area, about 190 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,205, of whom 4,878 were colored. The surface is slightly undulating and the soil fertile. It is traversed by the Macon and Western and the Savannah, Griffin, and North Alabama railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 18,634 bushels of wheat, 125,984 of Indian corn, 17,164 of oats, and 3,630 bales of cotton. There were 460 horses, 728 mules and asses, 1,169 milch cows, 1.554 other cattle, 1,521 sheep, and 4,256 swine. Capital, Griffin.

Span Worm

See Canker Worm, and Caterpillar.


Spandau, a town of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, at the junction of the Spree and the Havel, 7 m. W. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 19,013. It is a fortress of the third class, and the treasury of the German empire is deposited in the citadel, and can be unlocked only by two keys simultaneously, one of which is in the custody of the chancellor and the other in that of the president of the committee for the debts of the empire. Spandau has a largo central prison, new barracks and military hospital, an artillery school for infantry, a royal foundery of artillery, and various manufactories. It is one of the oldest towns of the Mit-telmark, and was repeatedly the residence of the electors of Brandenburg. It was occupied by the Swedes from 1G31 to 1635, surrendered to the French Oct. 25, 1806, and recovered by the Prussians April 26, 1813.