Tunicates

See Molluscoids.

Tuolumne

Tuolumne, an E. county of California, bounded N. by the Stanislaus river and E. by the Sierra Nevada mountains, and drained by the Tuolumne river; area, 1,944 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,150, of whom 1,524 were Chinese. The surface is level in the W. part, and in the E. mountainous and covered with excellent timber, which is largely exported; the soil of the valleys is very fertile. It was formerly one of the most important mining counties of the state, and mining is still carried on to a considerable extent. The chief productions in 1870 were 21,920 bushels of wheat, 7,995 of barley, 5,260 of potatoes, 48,525 lbs. of wool, 26,760 of butter, 51,590 gallons of wine, and 5,132 tons of hay. There were 1,283 horses, 1,681 milch cows, 2,849 other cattle, 30,117 sheep, and 4,266 swine; 5 breweries, 5 saw mills, and 8 quartz mills. Capital, Sonora.

Turk's Islands, Or Turqnes

Turk's Islands, Or Turqnes, a group of islets in the S. E. extremity of the Bahama archipelago, about 90 m. N. of Hayti; pop. about 2,500. The population fluctuates greatly at different times, as many people annually come from the Bermudas to work at salt raking, returning when the season is over. The islands are completely barren, and all kinds of supplies are imported. Grand Key or Turk's is the principal island. Since Jan. 1, 1874, the group with the Caicos group has been under the legislative control of Jamaica. The ports of entry are Grand Turk, Salt Cay, East Harbor, and West Caicos. The chief export is salt. For the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, the entries were 5 steamers of 3,555 tons, and 844 sailing vessels of 47,879 tons; total value of imports, $100,622; of exports, $115,682.

Turkomans

See Turkistan, and Turks.

Turnhout

Turnhout, a town of Belgium, in the province and 25 m. E. N. E. of the city of Antwerp; pop. about 15,000. It has a large church and extensive manufactories of linen, ticking, and lace. Leeches are reared here. In 1597 Maurice of Nassau routed the Spaniards here with the assistance of English troops, and compelled the fortress of Turnhont to surrender.

Turnsole

See Heliotrope.

Turnspit

See Terrier.

Turocz

Turocz, a N. W. county of Hungary, bordering on the counties of Trentschin, Arva, Liptó, Zólyom, Bars, and Neutra; area, 444 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 45,346, almost all Slovaks. It is traversed by the Carpathian mountains, and drained by the Waag and its affluent the Turócz. It abounds in rich pastures, meadows, and forests. Capital, Szent-Marton.

Turretin, Or Turretini

I. Francois

Francois, a Swiss theologian, born in Geneva, Oct. 17,1623, died there, Sept. 28, 1687. He visited Holland and France in his youth, studied under Spanheim, Morus, and Diodati, and on his return in 1647 was ordained pastor at Geneva. In 1650 he removed to Leyden, but in 1653 was recalled to Geneva to become professor of theology. His Institutiones Theologioe Elenchticce (Geneva, 1679-'85) is one of the clearest statements of Calvinistic doctrines. His complete works were published at Geneva in 1688, in 4 vols. 4to.

II. Jean Alphonse

Jean Alphonse, son of the preceding, born in Geneva, Aug. 13, 1671, died there, May 1, 1737. He was professor of ecclesiastical history at Geneva, and published Ecrits sur la verite de la religion judaïque et de la religion chretienne (5 vols. 8vo), an abridgment of ecclesiastical history, etc.