I. A S. E. LäN Or Government Of Finland

Russia A S. E. LäN Or Government Of Finland, bordering on the gulf of Finland; area, 16,611 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 276,884, chiefly Karelians. Lake Ladoga partly belongs to its territory, and it contains Lake Saima, which establishes communication between the various watersheds and the gulf. The principal occupations of the inhabitants are agriculture and mining.

II. A Town, Capital Of The LäN

Capital Of The LäN A Town, on a deep inlet of the gulf of Finland, 74 m. N. W. of St. Petersburg; pop. in 1867, 8,722. It has a gymnasium, a female high school, and a considerable export trade.

Vicente Joanes

See Juanes.

Viceroy Of Egypt Said Pasha

See Egypt, vol. vi., p. 467.

Vicesimus Knox

Vicesimus Knox, an English clergyman, born at Newington Green, Middlesex, Dec. 8, 1752, died in Tunbridge, Kent, Sept. 6, 1821. He was educated at St. John's college, Oxford. In 1778 he was elected master of Tunbridge school, and continued there for 33 years, and then settled in London. He is best known as the editor of the compilation entitled "Elegant Extracts." His " Christian Philosophy " has passed through numerous editions. His works, with a biographical preface, were published in London in 1824 (7 vols. 8vo), including "Essays, Moral and Literary."


Vichy, a town of France, in the department of Allier, on the right bank of the river Allier, which is here crossed by a suspension bridge, 30 m. S. of Moulins; pop. in 1872, 6,028. It consists of an old and a new town, known as Vichy-la-Ville and Vichy-les-Bains. There are several churches and hospitals, a fine park, a new English park, and a casino consisting of three parts joined by two arcades. It has eight principal springs. (See Mineral Springs.) The season lasts from May to October. Under the second empire, when the place was greatly improved and enlarged, the annual visitors numbered over 15,000.

Victor Duruy

Victor Duruy, a French historian, born in Paris, Sept. 11, 1811. He was successively professor of history at colleges in Rheims and Paris, was made doctor of letters in 1853, and afterward inspector of the academy of Paris, inspector general of secondary instruction, and professor of history at the polytechnic school. In 1863 he became minister of public instruction, and in this position introduced many improvements and innovations, some of which excited great opposition. He retired in 1869, and became a senator. He is the author of numerous very popular works on ancient, mediaeval; and modern geography and history, especially Greek, Roman, and French, several of which are included in a collection entitled L'Histoire universelle, edited by him. He also wrote important reports on the progress of literature and science as shown in the universal exposition of 1867.

Victor Emanijel I

Victor Emanijel I, king of Sardinia, born in 1759, died at Moncalieri, near Turin, Jan. 10, 1824. He was the second son of Victor Amadeus III., and succeeded his brother Charles Emanuel IV., who abdicated in his favor in June, 1802. The French were then masters of the continental parts of his kingdom, and Victor Emanuel, after a residence of four years in Naples, in the vain hope of recovering his possessions, resided in the island of Sardinia under the protection of Great Britain till 1814, when he was reinstated on the throne. By the treaties of Vienna he ceded several districts to Geneva, and obtained the territory of Genoa. His extreme reactionary policy resulted in his overthrow by an insurrection in 1821, when he was obliged to abdicate, March 13, in favor of his brother Charles Felix.