White Lead

See Lead, vol. x., p. 245.

White Pine

White Pine, an E. county of Nevada, bordering on Utah; area, 6,720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,189, of whom 292 were Chinese; in 1875, 2,557, of whom 80 were Chinese. It consists of a high plateau crossed N. and S. by alternate hills and valleys. The mountains abound in minerals, and are covered with timber and grazing lands; the valleys are generally fertile. Of these the most noticeable is Spring valley, from 8 to 20 m. wide, and extending across the county. The principal wealth is in the silver mines, of which, according to the United States census, 11 were in operation in 1870, producing ore to the value of $1,375,386. Since then the yield has largely fallen off. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,750 bushels of barley, 23,875 of potatoes, 13,950 lbs. of wool, and 6,318 tons of hay. There were 966 horses, 575 milch cows, 1,516 other cattle, 5,650 sheep, and 224 swine; 14 quartz mills, 1 manufactory of iron castings, and 6 of pig lead. Capital, Hamilton.

White River

See Arkansas, vol. i., p. 714.

White Sulphur Springs

White Sulphur Springs, a post village of Greenbrier co., West Virginia, on Howard's creek, and on the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad, by which it is 227 m. W. of Richmond. It is a place of summer Tesort on account of its mineral spring, which yields about 30 gallons per minute, and has a temperature of about 62° F. The first use of the waters by the whites is said to have been in 1778. Buildings have been erected capable of receiving 1,500 guests. At distances by the roads from about 20 to 40 m. from this spring are the Red, Salt, and Blue Sulphur springs, at each of which there are accommodations for guests.

Whitebait (Clupea Alba Yarr)

Whitebait (Clupea Alba Yarr), a small fish of the herring family, in great repute with London epicures. It has teeth on the palate and pterygoid bones, on the vomer, and on the tongue, for which reason Valenciennes established for it the genus rogenia; the scales are very soft, small, and thin. It is from 3 to 6 in. long, according to age, pale ashy green above, sides and lower parts unspotted white at all seasons. It ascends the Thames to deposit its spawn in the spring; the fishery begins in April and continues to September, and is prosecuted by means of nets; the fish are caught in abundance at every flood tide. Their food seems to consist of minute crustaceans. Every year there is a ministerial whitebait dinner at Greenwich, just before the prorogation of parliament.




Whitehaven, a seaport and market town of Cumberland, England, on a small creek of the Irish sea, 33 m. S. W. of Carlisle; pop. in 1871, 18,446. It is built at the foot of high hills and has a good harbor. The principal articles of export are coal, iron, and iron ore. The coal mines extend under the town and for more than two miles under the sea. There are manufactories of cotton, linen, iron and earthen ware, bricks, etc.