Bukowina, a crownland of Cisleithan Austria, bounded N. and N. W. by Galicia, E. by Russia and Moldavia, S. by Moldavia, and W. by Transylvania and Hungary; area, 4,036 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 513,404, of whom 40 per cent, are Ruthenians, 39 Roumans, 9 Jews, and 7 Germans, the remainder Poles, Magyars, Armenians, and Czechs. The dominant church is the Oriental Greek, which has a bishop at Czernowitz, and to which 74 per cent, of the population belong. The chief occupation is agriculture and forestry, in which more than three fourths of the population are engaged. Bukowina embraces the continuation of the Carpathian mountains and their transition into the hilly ranges which extend from the upper Pruth and Sereth to Moldavia. The river Dniester only touches the northern frontier; the Pruth traverses the country, and its affluent the Czeremosz forms the N. W. frontier. The Sereth and its affluents the Suczawa and Mol-dava rise in western Bukowina, and flow southward into Moldavia. Forests, chiefly beech, nearly cover the eastern half of the country, and it is from them that the name Bukowina (Polish, beech-land) is derived. The chief products are maize, oats, rye, wheat, and potatoes. The mines are of comparatively little importance, being confined to the S. E. corner.

Some iron and copper are produced, and in 1871 there were three glass works, a few paper mills, and 120 distilleries. In point of education Bukowina belongs among the least favored crown lands of the monarchy; 80 per cent, of the children of school age remain without instruction, and of the recruits for the army only 3 per cent, are able to write. There are gymnasia at Czernowitz and Suczawa, and a sub-gymnasium (Untergymnasium) at Radautz. In Czernowitz there is a theological institution of the Oriental Greek church. The diet is composed of the governor or Landeshauptmann, the Oriental Greek bishop, 9 delegates of the large real estates, 2 of the capital, 2 of the chamber of commerce and industry at Czernowitz, 3 of the towns and industrial places, and 12 of the rural communities. For administrative purposes the country is divided into the capital and 8 districts or Havptmannschaften. Besides the capital, Czernowitz, there were in 1871 five towns having upward of 5,000 inhabitants. - Toward the close of the middle ages Bukowina formed a district of Moldavia. Its possession was often disputed by the Poles. With Moldavia it became tributary to the Porte. It was conquered by the Russians in 1709, restored soon after, and in 1777 ceded to Austria, which united it with Galicia. In 1849 it was erected into a separate crown land.