Burlington, a central county of New Jersey, extending entirely across the state, and bounded S. E. by the Atlantic and N. W. by the Delaware river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 53,639. Several streams falling into the Atlantic and the Delaware water it. The surface is level. The soil near the river is remarkably fertile; in other localities it is sandy. Pine woods are found in various parts of the county. Bog iron ore is abundant, and in the western portion are frequently found, imbedded in marl, petrified vegetables and animal relics. It is intersected by the Camden and Amboy, the Mt. Holly branch and the Atco branch of the New Jersey Southern, the Camden and Burlington County, and the Pemberton and Hightstown railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 200,120 bushels of wheat, 102,-411 of rye, 983,879 of Indian corn, 175,738 of oats, 581,955 of Irish and 114,517 of sweet potatoes, 58,165 tons of hay, 494,769 lbs. of butter, and 47,247 of wool. There were 6,407 horses, 1,288 mules and asses, 14,796 milch cows, 3,852 other cattle, 1,669 sheep, and 15,760 swine.
Capital, Mount Holly.
Burlington, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Chittenden co., Vt., situated on a bay of its own name on the E. shore of Lake Champlain, 38 m. by railroad N. W. of Mont-pelier; pop. in 1870, 14,387. The city was incorporated in 1864 from part of the town of the same name. The harbor is the best on the lake, being easy of access from N. and S., protected from W. winds by a breakwater 900 ft. long, and having a lighthouse erected in 1826 on Juniper island, at the mouth of the bay. Burlington is the largest place in the state, and in beauty of scenery and location is scarcely surpassed in New England. The ground on which it is built rises gradually from the shore to a height of 281 ft., the summit commanding one of the finest views in the United States. On the N. is the Winooski or Onion river, with the manufacturing village of Winooski, connected with the city by a bridge, and partly comprised in Burlington township. The university of Vermont, comprising four large buildings, founded in 1791, and endowed by the state with 29,000 acres of land, occupies the highest ground in the city. The agricultural college was united in 1865 with the university, which accordingly received the national grant of 150,000 acres of land.
In 1871 the university had 15 instructors, 245 students, of whom 105 were females, and a library of 15,000 volumes. Connected with it is a medical school. The other edifices of most note are 8 churches, a courthouse, and a jail, several of which face a central public square. There is also a custom house and marine hospital, built in 1857. The public schools are 20 in number, and are attended by 1,500 pupils. The Vermont Episcopal institute, organized in 1858, in 1871 had 3 male and 3 female instructors and 100 students, of whom 50 were females. There are one daily and two weekly journals. Most of the lake vessels are owned here. For the year ending June 30, 1871, the number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed was 23, with an aggregate tonnage of 5,890. The lumber trade is very large. The Vermont Central and Canada, and the Rutland and Burlington railroads afford communication with all parts of the United States and Canada. The depot of the former is a large and elegant building. Steamboats stop here daily on the way from Whitehall to Montreal, and a steam ferry boat crosses the lake to Port Kent and Plattsburgh. - Burlington was first permanently settled in 1783, and organized in 1787. The first store was opened in 1789, and the first Congregational church formed in 1795. During the war of 1812 a garrison and hospital were located here, and during the winter of 1813 so fearful a mortality prevailed among the 4,000 men composing the former, that for several weeks together the deaths were from 12 to 20 a day.
The tomb of Gen. Ethan Allen, who died here in 1789, is in Green Mount cemetery, half a mile E. of the university.
Burlington, a city and port of entry of Burlington co., N. J., on the Delaware river, at the mouth of Assiscunk creek, 18 m. N. E. of Philadelphia; pop. in 1870, 5,817. It was founded in 1677, principally by members of the society of Friends. It is situated on the Camden and Amboy railroad, and is connected with Philadelphia by lines of steamers, and by a branch railroad with Mount Holly. The city contains two hotels, two boarding schools, several churches and banks, an ancient library, which contains a large collection of rare and valuable works, and public schools which are richly endowed by a legacy of land from one of the early settlers, now become exceedingly productive. Three weekly newspapers are published. Burlington college, an Episcopal institution, educates a large number of students; and St. Mary's hall, also under the supervision of the Episcopalians, in 1871 had 28 instructors, of whom 20 were females, 209 pupils, and a library of 2,400 volumes. For the year ending June 30, 1871, there were registered, enrolled, and licensed at the port 131 ves- . sels, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,525. - Burlington was long the seat of government for West Jersey, and was the official residence of the last colonial governor, William Franklin. It carried on a lucrative commerce with the West Indies both before and after the laying out of Philadelphia, built vessels, and subsequently built and fitted out a large privateer, which cruised successfully against the French. It was made the see of a bishop, and St. Mary's Episcopal church was liberally endowed by Queen Anne with land in and near the city, much of which is held to the present day, together with a massive communion service, presented by the same princess.
A printing office and newspaper were established in 1777. As Philadelphia increased, Burlington declined.
Burlington, a city and the county seat of Des Moines co., Iowa, 137 m. S. E. of Des Moines, and 207 m. by railroad W. S. W. of Chicago, on the W. bank of the Mississippi river, about 14 m. N. of an easterly extension of the main boundary line between Iowa and Missouri; pop. in 1870, 14,933. The W. bank of the Mississippi at this point consists mostly of steep cliffs of carboniferous limestone 150 ft. high, furnishing an abundance of excellent materials for building, paving, and the manufacture of lime. The stone quarries in this formation are rich in the organic fossils of the carboniferous era, particularly of the crinoid family. The summits of these cliffs are capped with some 30 or 40 feet of diluvial clay, that, with a rich surface stratum of vegetable mould, forms the table land of the surrounding country. At the base of these cliffs the slope of their debris passes into the river. This deep embankment is scooped out through the centre of the city by the waters of a small creek, called the Hawk-eye, which enters the Mississippi nearly at right angles.
On either side of this creek, and to the west, about half a mile from the river, where the creek branches to the right and left, the ground gradually rises to the level of the surrounding table land, thus giving to the central portions of the town an arrangement similar to an amphitheatre, and adding much to its beauty and salubrity. On the opposite side of the river low lands, mostly subject to occasional inundation, extend some 7 or 8 m. to the Illinois bluffs. The business portion of the city is built upon the low ground along the river, while the residences upon the high bluffs command extended views of the fine river scenery. The river at this point is a broad, deep, and beautiful stream of clear water, and upon the bluffs between which it passes are orchards and vineyards. The city is regularly laid out and well built, the houses being chiefly of brick. In 1871 there were 8 public schools, with 37 teachers and 1,451 pupils. The Burlington business college was organized here in 1865, and in 1871 had 5 teachers and 202 students. Burlington university, a Baptist institution, was organized in 1854. There are about 15 churches, a public library, two daily newspapers with weekly editions, one triweekly and weekly (German), and one monthly periodical.
The extensive coal fields in the vicinity afford great facilities for manufacturing; the chief establishments are flouring mills, saw mills, founderies, pork-packing houses, breweries, and soap factories. The following railway lines centre here: Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, the Carthage branch of the same, Burlington and Keokuk, and Burlington and Missouri River. The town was laid out in 1834, and from 1837 to 1840 was the capital of Iowa.