Also called Ra-firland, a country in the E. part of South Africa, between Cape Colony and Natal, extending N. on the coast from the Great Kei river to the Umzimculu, about 140 m., and inland about 90 m. to the Storm and Quathlamba mountains, between lat. 30° and 32° 40' S., and Ion. 27° 30' and 30° E.; area, about 16,000 sq. m.; pop. about 135,000. Before the British encroachments Caffraria extended 600 m. along the coast from the Great Kei river to Delagoa bay, and included what is now Natal and Zooloo Land. The climate is warm, but healthy; the lower parts of the hillsides are cultivated principally with maize, millet, and watermelons; and large herds of cattle graze on the plains, which are well watered and are covered with a coarse luxuriant growth of grass. The Caffres, from whom the land receives its name, were so called by the Mohammedans, who applied to them the Arabic name Kafir, unbeliever. The men are powerfully and symmetrically built, the females superior in beauty to the other native races of southern Africa. The complexion of the southern Caffres is brown or copper color; it becomes darker further north, until it is deep black.

Their hair is black and woolly; the nose and forehead approach the European type; the cheek bones resemble those of the Hottentot, and the lips are thick and prominent. They have but little beard. Their language is unwritten, but is rich, and superior to the speech of the Bushmen and Hottentots. Their government is patriarchal; a petty chief presides over every kraal or hamlet, and is tributary to a higher chief. These higher chiefs owe allegiance to the umkumkani, or great chief, and form the national council. They live by the raising of cattle and hunting. Their agriculture is attended to by the women. They have no notion of a supreme being, but are devout believers in witchcraft and spirits, and the shades of their ancestors. A Caffre swears by the spirit of his ancestor. Their charm doctors, rain makers, and prophets exercise great power. They circumcise boys at the age of 12 or 14, and abhor the flesh of swine and all fish except shell fish, and milk is their principal food. Christianity has not made much way among the Caffres, although missionary stations have been planted there for 40 years; but there is a Christian church among the Griquas, considerable numbers of whom migrated to Caffraria in 1863, and in 1871 the church had 5,000 members.

The great stumbling-block is the Christian doctrine of monogamy, every Caftre having as many wives as he can buy and support. Their huts are hemispherical, thatched with straw and plastered with cow dung. There is no chimney; the fireplace is in the centre. They preserve their millet in pits dug in the ground. The men wear but little clothing, are sometimes tattooed, and often go totally naked. The Caffres are divided into three tribes: 1, the Amakosa, who border upon the British settlements, and were stripped of the greater part of their territory in the war of 1847; 2, the Amatemba or Tambookis, whose westernmost territories border on the back territory of the colony toward the sources of the Great Kei; and 3, the Amaponda or Mambookis, further N. E. Their native weapons are clubs and javelins, but they have learned the use of firearms from their enemies, and are very formidable opponents in mountain and bush warfare. The climate of Caffraria is healthy and well adapted to the European constitution. The country is beautifully wooded, rising in terraces from south to north, and is watered by several rivers. The aloe, the gum tree, and the plantain abound; lions, elephants, hippopotami and rhinoceroses are to be found, but are becoming rare.

II. British, a district S. of the preceding, extending from the Keiskama to the Great Kei river, and divided into the counties of Northumberland, York, Sussex, Middlesex, Cambridge, Lincoln, and Bedford; pop. in 1866, 69,777, including 5,847 white or European. The capital is Williamstown on the Buffalo river, and the new town of East London is at its mouth. The annexation of this dependency resulted from the Caffre war of 1847. For 20 years previous the settlers in the district of Albany, adjoining on the south, had suffered from irruptions of the Caffres. In 1847 they were subdued, but in 1850 hostilities were renewed and continued two years, at a cost to the British government of £1,500,-000 and the loss of many lives. On Dec. 20, 1852, Gen. Cathcart defeated the Bassutos, a Caffre tribe, on the Berea mountain, and shortly after three chiefs submitted, thus ending the war; and a treaty of peace was ratified at Williamstown, March 9, 1853. In 1866 the dependency was incorporated with Cape Colony, but retained its name. The Caffre population of this dependency has been partially won over to civilization.

The importation of arms, gunpowder, and spirituous liquors among them is strictly forbidden.

Zooloo Youths in Dancing Costume.

Zooloo Youths in Dancing Costume.