Calais, a city and one of the capitals of "Washington county, Maine, at the head of tide water on the St. Croix river, 15 m. from Pas-samaquoddy bay, opposite St. Stephen, New Brunswick, and 75 m. E. by N. of Bangor; pop. in 1870, 5,944. Five bridges span the river at this point. The St. Croix and Penobscot railroad, completed to Princeton, 22 m., will connect with the European and North American line, forming a continuous route to Bangor. A branch of the New Brunswick and Canada railroad terminates at St. Stephen. The tide rises at Calais from 20 to 28 feet. Lines of steamers ply to St. John on the east and Portland and Boston on the west. The water power is of a superior character, the large lakes at the head of the river acting as reservoirs during the dry season, and preventing sudden rises by freshets. The chief industry is the manufacture and trade in lumber, which is obtained from the extensive forests on the upper St. Croix. The arrivals of vessels in the year 1872 numbered 1,195, and the departures 1,196. The exports of long lumber from the river m that year were over 100,000,-000 ft., of which about 30,000,000 went to foreign parts.

The exports of short lumber were 82,000,000 laths, 40,000,000 shingles, 1,500,000 pickets, 353,000 ft. of spool stuff, 160,000 hoops, 150,000 broom handles, 110,000 clapboards, 75,000 railroad ties, 51,000 ship knees, and 12,000 spruce poles. The machinery for sawing lumber is propelled exclusively by water power, and consists of 63 mills and 40 lath and shingle, machines. Nearly all the mills contain gangs of saws, each gang containing 16 movable upright saws in a single frame, the whole having a capacity of production equal to 1,000,-000 superficial feet of sawed lumber per day. Ship building is also an important branch of industry. From 10 to 15 vessels are built annually. The city owns 10,000 tons of shipping. It also has a large steam mill for the manufacture of doors, windows, and all kinds of planed lumber, a steam flour mill, an establishment for grinding and calcining plaster of Paris, 2 iron founderies, 2 machine shops, 2 axe manufactories, a dry dock, 2 marine railways, several flour mills, and a number of small establishments for various kinds of wood manufacture.

On the head waters of the St. Croix several large tanneries have been recently built at a cost of nearly $1,000,000. The city contains a national bank with a capital of $100,000, and a savings bank with deposits in 1870 amounting to $87,882 39. The valuation of estates in 1870 was $1,523,452. There are 16 school houses, and the city is divided into 9 school districts, 2 of which have graded schools, each containing 4 grades; average attendance, about 1,200. In 1870, $10,000 were raised for school purposes. The city contains a large city hall, an opera house, 2 weekly newspapers, 3 post offices, 4 hotels, and 10 churches. The government is administered by a mayor and 5 aldermen (one for each ward). - Within the city limits, at the mouth of the river, lies St. Croix or Big island, on which Pierre du Gast, sieur de Monts, wintered in 1604-'5, on the voyage in which he founded Port Royal in Nova Scotia, the first permanent French settlement in America. Calais was organized as a town in 1809, and incorporated as a city in 1850. In August, 1870, a large part of the city was consumed by fire, about 40 acres of the most thickly settled portion being burned over, together with 15 wharves and about 20 vessels.

It has been entirely rebuilt with larger and more commodious structures, and in the business portion largely of brick and stone.

Calais #1

Calais, a seaport town of France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, on the strait of Dover, 19 m. N. N. E. of Boulogne, and 150 N. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 12,727. It is situated in a barren district, and is fortified by a citadel and several forts. The harbor, formed by two long wooden piers, is shallow. There is a lighthouse 190 ft. high near the outer ramparts. Steamers ply daily across the strait to Dover, with which it is connected by a submarine telegraph. It is entered from the sea through a drawbridge and gate erected by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635. The streets are broad and well paved, and the houses neat in appearance, mostly of stone and brick. The ramparts afford a pleasant promenade. English is very generally spoken. The noteworthy buildings are the church of Notre Dame, built during the English occupation, and containing Vandyke's famous painting of the Assumption; the hotel de ville, containing the public offices, and surmounted by a belfry with chimes; and the hotel de Guise, established by Edward III. for the wool staplers' guild. In front of the hotel de ville are busts of Eustace de St. Pierre, Francis duke of Guise, and Cardinal Richelieu; behind it is la tour du Guet, which dates from 1214, and was formerly used as a lighthouse.

Calais has manufactures of tulle, gloves, and hats, and exports wine, brandy, and eggs. Carriages are a considerable article of trade, and ship building and fisheries are important branches of industry. - Prior to the 10th century Calais was an insignificant fishing village, but it was greatly improved in 997 by Baldwin IV., count of Flanders, and enlarged and strengthened by Philip of France, count of Boulogne, in the early part of the 13th century. It was taken by the English under Edward III. in 1347, after a long siege, Eustace de St. Pierre and five companions being accepted as a ransom for the whole population, and being themselves spared at the intercession of Queen Philippa. It was retaken by the French under the duke of Guise in 1558, and since that time has remained in their hands except for two years (1596-'8), when it was held by the Spaniards. Charles II. of England lived there for some time in 1659, and James II. mustered his forces there for the invasion of Ireland. The spot at which Louis XVIII. landed, April 24, 1814, after his exile, is marked by a column with an inscription commemorating the event.

The Place d'Armes, with the Hotel de Ville and Lighthouse.

The Place d'Armes, with the Hotel de Ville and Lighthouse.