Caledonia, the name given by the Romans to that portion of Scotland N. of the Glota and Bodotria, the modern Clyde and Forth, which formed the northern boundary of their province. The Caledonii were of Celtic origin, and are described by Tacitus as having red hair and large limbs, going naked and barefooted, living in tents, subsisting by the chase and pasturing cattle, addicted to predatory warfare, and fighting from chariots with spears, daggers, and shields. There were 21 tribes, which were more or less united in resisting the encroachments of the Romans and in making incursions into Britain. In the year 84 they were defeated under their chieftain Galgacus, by Agricola, in a bloody battle on the Grampian hills, but were never reduced to subjection. At a later period they were known as Picts, from the habit of painting their bodies, and were joined by the Scots from Ireland in their depredations upon lower Britain. Agricola, and after him the emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Severus, strengthened the natural boundaries by forts and ramparts against their invasions The name Caledonii disappears about the be-ginning of the 4th century; and at a later period the Scots came to predominate over the Picts, and finally gave their name to the country.
Caledonia is still used as a poetical designation for Scotland.
Caledonia, a N. E. county of Vermont; area, 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,247. The Connecticut river forms its S. E. boundary, separating it from New Hampshire, and several small streams furnish water power for saw and grist mills. Maple sugar is produced in this county in greater quantity than in almost any other in the United States. There are some sulphur springs, and an abundance of granite and limestone. The Connecticut and Passump-sic Rivers railroad traverses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 49,331 bushels of wheat, 68,222 of Indian corn, 355,938 of oats, 49,084 of buckwheat, 466,680 of potatoes, 66,772 tons of hay, 1,246,300 lbs. of butter, 130,295 of wool, 1,158,904 of maple sugar, and 31,910 of hops. There were 5,217 horses, 10,650 milch cows, 12,164 other cattle, 27,142 sheep, and 2,405 swine. Capital, St. Johnsbury.