Cameroons Mountains, the loftiest group upon the W. coast of Africa, lying between lat. 3° 57' and 4° 25' N., and Ion. 9° and 9° 30' E., covering an area of about 700 sq. m. They form a huge volcanic mass, the highest summits of which are said to reach an elevation of 13,000 ft. Upon the west the Cameroons touch the gulf of Guinea and the low tract bordering the estuaries of the Rumbi and Old Calabar rivers; -upon the south they also come down to the gulf; upon the east they touch the western branch of the Jamur, the eastern branch of which forms the estuary of the Cameroons river, between Cape Cameroons on the north ,and Cape Suellaba on the south. The summit of the Cameroons was first ascended by Capt. R. F. Burton and the German botanist Mann at the end of December, 1861. Up to the height of about 4,000 ft. the sides of the mountains are covered with a dense growth of palms, acacias,' many species of the fig tree, cardamoms, cabbage trees, African oaks, ericas, enormous ferns, and bamboos; and still higher up by smaller trees and plants. At the elevation of 4,850 ft. begins a labyrinth of lava streams and fields of slag.
At the height of 7,900 ft. appear the first craters, of which there are about 28. The natives of the region say that there was an eruption as late as 1838. The lower slopes of the mountains ap-' pear to he well adapted to the culture of cacao, coffee, and sugar, although the banana and the cocoanut are the principal productions.