Campania, a division of ancient Italy, lying S. E. of Xatium, from which it was separated by the river Liris, bounded N. and E. by Sam-nium, S. E. by Lucania, and S. and W. by the Tyrrhenian sea. The largest river was the Vulturnus; the smaller streams were the Liris (now Garigliano), Sarnus, Sebethus, and Silarus. It contained several lakes, most of them filling the craters of extinct volcanoes; the largest of them were Acherusia, Literna, Lucrinus, and Avernus, W. of Monte Nuovo. Within its borders are Mount Vesuvius and the buried cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Besides these its principal cities were Baiae, Nuceria, Neapolis, Salernum, and Capua. The first inhabitants of Campania were Auso-nes and Osci or Opici, subsequently conquered by the Etruscans. In the time of the Romans, the Sidicini dwelt in the northwest near the frontier of Samnium, and the Picentini inhabited the S. E. portion of the country. Campania is now included in the provinces of Naples, Benevento, Caserta, Salerno, and Avellino. The region is volcanic, and the soil extremely fertile. In some parts crops are harvested three times in a year.
This fertility, joined with an equable climate, an air mildly tempered by soft sea breezes, and beautiful scenery, gave the title Felix to the land, and it is still called Cam-pagna Felice. The chief products are wine, grain, and olive oil. A peculiar kind of white clay or chalk, used extensively in ancient Italy for mixing with alica (grits or cracked grain), was found near Puteoli. Sulphur was exported from the same locality.