Canterbury, a city of England, county of Kent, on the river Stour, 52 m. E. S. E. of London; pop. in 1871,16,508. The city has no commercial or manufacturing importance, but is one of the markets of the rich surrounding agricultural district; and its fine situation has made it a favorite residence, as is evident from the numerous villas and seats in the vicinity. Among the public buildings, besides the churches and the charitable establishments, are the guildhall, markets, the corn and hop exchange, and the philosophical museum. There is a cavalry barrack near the city. Its celebrity is derived from its historical and ecclesiastical associations. The archbishop of Canterbury is primate of England. -The ecclesiastical province includes the dioceses of Canterbury, Bangor, Bath and Wells, Chichester, Ely, Exeter, Gloucester and Bristol, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Llandafi:', London, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Rochester, St. Asaph, Salisbury, Winchester, and Worcester. The diocese of Canterbury comprises 352 benefices, and the chapter consists of a dean, six canons, two archdeacons, six preachers, and five minor canons; the income of the archbishop is £15,-000 a year, and he is the patron of 149 livings.
The town existed in the time of the Romans, who called it Durrovernum (from the ancient British Durwher), and many Roman coins and remains have been found in and near the city. It was the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Kent, and it was here that Augustin baptized Ethel-bert and 10,000 Saxons in 597. The great cathedral, consecrated in 1130, was restored and beautified not long before the accession of Queen Victoria, making it one of the most beautiful interiors in England. The great tower is of remarkable beauty. The windows are of painted glass, and the colors are exceedingly rich. The length of the structure is 574 ft., extreme breadth 159 ft. The crypts beneath are the finest in England, and contain several chapels. The cathedral was founded by Archbishop Lanfranc, enlarged and completed by Anselm, and consecrated by Archbishop Corbel, in presence of Henry I. of England, David, king of Scotland, and all the English bishops. Augustin was the first archbishop, and died here between 604 and 614. The celebrated archbishop Thomas a Becket was murdered before the high altar Dec. 29, 1170. There are numerous monuments in the cathedral; among others those to the memory of Henry IV. and of the Black Prince. Several times the cathedral has seriously suffered from fire.
In 1174 the choir and other portions of the interior were consumed; and on Sept. 3, 1872, a portion of the roof 150 ft. in length was burned, and the interior of the cathedral was damaged by fire and water. There are several fine old churches in Canterbury, one of the most interesting of which is St. Martin's. In St. Dunstan's the head of Sir Thomas More, which had been buried by his daughter, was found in 1835. There are also various architectural relics of past ages. One of the most interesting of these, the great Au-gustinian monastery, long used as a brewery, has been redeemed from its modern uses by the munificence of Mr. Beresford Hope, who purchased it and presented it to the church as a missionary college, defraying the expense of the restorations and enlargements. There are several educational establishments in the city: the grammar school, an endowed school attached to the cathedral, the national British and infant schools, a blue coat and a gray coat school. By the liberality of Alderman Simmonds, a field called the Dane John, containing a high mound, was laid out and converted into a very pleasant garden for public use.