Capetians, the third race of French kings, beginning with Hugh Capet (987). The origin of the Capets is usually traced back to Robert the Strong, a warrior of Saxon descent, who held in fief from Charles the Bald the county of Anjou and afterward the duchy of lle-de-France. He gained great popularity by his struggles against the Norman pirates who invaded France during the 9th century. Three of his descendants, Eudes, Robert, and Raoul, assumed the title of king in competition with the Carlovin-gian princes; but the crown was not firmly established in this family until the election of Hugh Capet. This appears to have been a kind of national protest on the part of the Gallo-French population against the descendants of Charlemagne, who then depended on German princes. The Capetians, several of whom were distinguished as able politicians or great warriors, strengthened their position by close alliance with the clergy, and the assistance they received from the communes or municipal cities. They were 15 in number, and reigned from 987 to 1328, as follows: Hugh Capet, 987-'96; Robert II., the Pious, 996-1031; Henry I., 1031-'60; Philip I., 1060-1108; Louis VI., the Fat, 1108-'37; Louis VII., 1137-80; Philip Augustus, 1180-1223; Louis VIII., 1223-'26; Louis IX., or Saint Louis, 1226-'70; Philip III., the Bold, 1270-'85; Philip IV., the Fair, 1285 -1314; Louis X., the Quarrelsome, 1314-'16; John I., 1316, a posthumous child, who died at the age of 8 days, and is therefore generally omitted from the list of French kings; Philip V., the Long, 1316-'22; Charles IV., the Fair, 1322-28. From this main stock issued several collateral branches, the most important of which are the following: Robert, the grandson of Hugh Capet and brother of Henry I., in 1032 founded the first ducal house of Burgundy, which became extinct in 1361; Pierre, the eighth son of Louis VI., married Isabella de Courtenai, and had three descendants who reigned at Constantinople during the 13th century; Charles, count of Anjou, the eighth brother of St. Louis, was the head of the first house of Anjou, which held the kingdom of Naples from 1266 to 1382. The sixth son of the holy king, Robert, count of Clermont, was the head of the house of Bourbon, which succeeded to the French throne in 1589; while his grandson, Charles, the brother of Philip the Fair, founded the house of Valois, which came into possession of the crown on the extinction of the direct Capetian line.