Cappel, the name of a French family which produced many jurists and theologians during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. I. Guillaume, advocate general of the parliament of Paris, and in 1491 rector of the university. He opposed the claim of Pope Innocent VIII. to impose tithes upon the university. He afterward became a priest, and at his death was dean of the faculty of theology. II. Jacques, nephew of the preceding, also advocate general of the parliament, about 1520. He was author of several works, among which is Memoire pour le roi et VEglise gallicane, in opposition to papal claims. HI. Louis, the elder, born in Paris, Jan. 15, 1534, died at Sedan, Jan. 6, 1586. At 16 he was regent of humanities in the college of Cardinal Lemoine, and afterward professor of Greek at Bordeaux. He embraced the reformation, and after the massacre of St. Bartholomew was sent to Germany to solicit the aid of the German princes. William of Orange appointed him professor of theology in the newly founded university of Leyden. He returned to France, became chaplain in the Huguenot army, and finally took up his residence at Sedan as pastor and professor of theology.
IV. Jacques, seigneur du Tilloy, grandson of Louis, born at Rennes in March, 1570, died there, Sept. 7, 1624. He was professor of Hebrew and theology in his native city, and author of several works, among which are valuable notes on the Old Testament, which are printed among the commentaries of his brother. V. Louis, the younger, brother of the preceding, born at Sedan, Oct. 15, 1585, died at Saumur, June 18, 1658. He gained a high reputation as professor of divinity and oriental languages at the university of Saumur, and as an exegetical and critical writer. His principal work is the Critica Sacra, upon which he was engaged for 36 years; it contains a list of many errors and various readings that have crept into the Scriptural text. He also engaged in a controversy with the Buxtorfs in regard to the Hebrew vowel points. They maintained that these are coeval with the alphabet; he, that they are not older than the 7th century.