Carcassonne (anc. Carcaso), a city of Lan-guedoc, France, capital of the department of Aude, 50 m. S. E. of Toulouse, on the river Aude; pop. in 1866, 22,173. The river divides it into two parts, the old city and the new, joined by a bridge of 10 arches. The new town is well built, with broad streets intersecting each other at right angles. It is an important manufacturing and commercial centre, and contains large woollen factories, producing a fine cloth, highly esteemed for its brilliant dyes, which is especially exported to the Levant, Barbary, and South America. Trade is carried on in grain, wines, fruit, and leather. No place in France has preserved to a greater extent the aspect of a fortress of the middle ages than the old town or cite, which is quite distinct from the new and is almost deserted. It is enclosed by double walls, flanked with towers, and protected by a strong castle. -Oarcaso was the chief town of the Volcse Tectosages, who were conquered by the Romans. The Visigoths probably built the inner line of the walls, and part of the castle. These fortifications, however, did not prevent the storming of the town by the Saracens. From the 9th century till 1247 Carcassonne was governed by its own counts.

In 1209, in the crusade against the Albigenses, it was taken by Simon de Montfort after a severe siege, and 450 of the inhabitants, who refused to abjure their heresy, were burned. In 1262 it suffered severely in a revolt against the king. In the church of St. Nazaire is the tomb of Simon de Montfort.

Carcassonne.

Carcassonne.