Cardwell. I. Edward, an English clergyman, born at Blackburn, Lancashire, in 1787, died in Oxford, May 23, 1861. He studied at Oxford, in 1809 became fellow of his college, tutor, and lecturer, and in ]814 was appointed one of the university examiners. In 1826 he was elected Camden professor of history, and in 1831 principal of St. Alban's hall, succeeding Archbishop Whately. He also held a college living, was for many years a member of the governing council of the university, and was the private secretary of three successive chancellors. He wrote several works bearing upon English ecclesiastical history and "Lectures on the Coinage of the Greeks and Romans," and edited Aristotle's "Ethics," Josephus's "History of the War of the Jews," and a variorum edition of the Greek Testament, with a marginal harmony and notes. II. Edward, an English statesman, nephew of the preceding, born in Liverpool in 1813. His father was a wealthy merchant. He took a double first-class degree at Oxford in 1835, and was called to the bar in 1838. He was elected to parliament for Clith-eroe in 1842, and as a supporter and friend of Sir Robert Peel, one of whose literary executors he became, he was returned for Liverpool in 1847; but he failed to be returned for that city and also for Ayrshire in 1852, and has represented the city of Oxford almost uninterruptedly since January, 1853, as a liberal conservative.

He was secretary of the treasury from February, 1845, to July, 1846; president of the board of trade from December, 1852, to February, 1855; chief secretary for Ireland from June, 1859, to July, 1861; from the latter period till April, 1864, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; and afterward secretary for the colonies till July, 1866. In December, 1868, he was appointed a member of the council of education and secretary of state for war, which office he continues to hold (1873).