Carlisle, a borough and the capital of Cumberland co., Penn., on the Cumberland Valley and the South Mountain Iron company's railroads, 18 m. W. by S. of Harrisburg; pop. in 1870, 6,650. It is situated in the great limestone valley enclosed between the Kittatinny and South mountains. The surrounding country is level, productive, and highly cultivated. The town is well built, with wide and spacious streets, a public square, on which stand the county buildings, and public edifices of a superior order. Dickinson college, founded here in 1783, and now under the care of the Methodists, is one of the oldest and most flourishing institutions in the state. The town has 13 churches, 2 banks, 2 weekly newspapers, 2 machine shops, a car factory, and barracks for 2,000 men, built in 1777. Four miles north, in a valley of the Blue mountains, are Carlisle sulphur springs. During the whiskey insurrection, in 1794, Gen. Washington had his headquarters at Carlisle. It was shelled by the confederates on the night of July 1, 1863.

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Carlisle (anc. Luguvallio or Luguvalluni), a city of England, and the shire town of Cumberland county, 260 in. N. N. W. of London, and 50 m. W. S. W. of Newcastle; pop. in 1871, 31,074. It is situated on the river Eden, and is a handsome city. There are a custom house, a news room, a market, and a handsome railway station. A fine five-arch bridge has been built over the Eden. There are several institutions for benevolent purposes. The cathedral church is a structure of the middle ages, not remarkable for size or beauty. There are four other churches, several chapels, an endowed grammar school, British, national, and infant schools, two literary institutions, a mechanics' institute, a library, five banks, and a savings bank. The castle was built by the Normans in 1092, and many parts of it are in excellent preservation. It is still used as a garrison fortress. The city is one of the oldest in England, and was a Roman station. Its proximity to the border made it important as a military station in the wars between the English and Scotch. In the civil war Carlisle sided with the king, and it declared for the pretender in 1745. The inhabitants are principally employed in manufactories of cotton goods and ginghams, founderies, hat factories, and dye works.

It is connected with the Sol-way frith by a canal which gives it a share of the coasting trade. It gives the title of earl to the Howard family, and is a bishop's see. The municipal government is administered by a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors. It returns two members to parliament, and is the centre of a poor-law union.

Entrance to the Castle.

Entrance to the Castle.