Carlsbad, Or Karlsbad, a town of Bohemia, 70 m. W. N. W. of Prague; pop. in 1870, 7,276. It is situated in a narrow and picturesque valley on the Topi, near its confluence with the Eger, and is neatly built. It is famous as a watering place, taking its name from the emperor Charles IV., who in the middle of the 14th century was the first to avail himself of the healing power of the springs, and whose statue adorns the market place. Next to Charles IV., the greatest benefactor of the town was a Scotch nobleman, the earl of Findlater and Seafield, who laid out some beautiful parks. An obelisk in his honor has been erected in a beautiful wood adjoining the town. The chief ingredients of the springs are sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, and common salt; the principal springs are the Sprudel, Muhlbrunnen, Neubrunnen, There-sienbrunnen, and Schlossbrunnen, having respectively a temperature of from 165° to 118° F. The waters are efficacious in liver and kidney diseases, and in a variety of other complaints. They are exported to distant places, without being deteriorated by the journey.

In 1853 a new spring was discovered by Dr. Mannl, containing carbonic and phos-phatic oxide of iron. - In August, 1819, a congress was convened at Carlsbad by the German powers, principally with a view of crushing the seditious spirit which at that time manifested itself especially at the universities. The assassination of Kotzebue by Sand atforded a pretext to the governments to carry out reactionary designs; and by the decrees promulgated at Carlsbad, Sept. 20, 1819, the Burschenschaf-ten, or political unions of the students, were declared illegal, and other stringent measures adopted; but in April, 1848, these decrees, as far as they had been approved by the German diet, were rescinded by that body.