Carnelian (Lat. caro, gen. carnis, flesh; called by the ancients sarda), a clear red chalcedony, one of the numerous varieties of the quartz family of minerals. (See Agate.) It is found resembling flesh in its colors, whence its name. By exposure to the sun and baking, the colors are deepened. Together with agates, carne-lians are quarried in great quantities in ditferent parts of India, particularly m the region of Cambay, whence the name commonly applied to them all of Cambay stones. They are also brought to the lapidary workshops at Cambay from different parts of Guzerat, to be worked up into round and flat necklaces, beads, bracelets, armlets, seals, marbles, chess men, studs, rings, etc, winch give employment in their manufacture to nearly 2,000 people. Between the Bowa Gore and Bowa Abbas hills, on the plain, are small mounds, in which the stones are quarried by the Bheels of the district. They sink shafts, and excavate horizontal galleries, working underground with lamps. The stones, being brought to the surface and sorted, are purchased of the miners in the village of Ruttunpoor, by the contractor or his agents. When a considerable quantity is collected, a trench is dug in afield two feet in depth and three in breadth.
In this a fire is made with the dung of goats and cows, and upon it earthen pots containing the stones are placed in rows. The fire is kept up from sunset to sunrise, when the pots are removed, and the stones piled away. These once a year are carted to Nemodra, then sent down the river in canoes to Broach, and thence in boats to Cambay. The manufacture of beads from the rough stone is thus conducted: The stones, brought to a convenient size, are chipped into a rounded form upon the point of an iron, standing inclined in the ground. Another workman then takes them, and fixing a number of equal size in wooden or bamboo clamps, rubs them on a coarse, hard polishing stone; they are then transferred to another man, who secures them in clamps, and rubs them on all their sides against a ground polishing board, smeared with a composition of emery and lac. The final polish is given by putting several hundreds or thousands of the beads into a stout leathern bag, about 2 ft. long and 10 or 12 in. in diameter, with some emery dust and the carnelian powder obtained in boring the holes through the beads. The mouth of the bag is tied up, and a flat thong is bound around its centre.
Two men seated at opposite ends of a room then roll it back and forth between them, keeping up the operation from 10 to 15 days, the bag being kept moistened with water. When the beads are well polished, they are passed to the workmen who bore the holes. This is done by means of a steel drill tipped with a small diamond, the work being kept wet by water dripping upon it. - Carnelian is a common mineral in many localities in the United States, especially on Lake Superior, in Missouri, and on the upper Mississippi. It is used for numerous articles of jewelry, and is cut on a leaden plate with emery, and polished on wood with pumice stone.