Catawba, a W. central county of North Carolina; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,-984, of whom 1,703 were colored. It derives its name from the Great Catawba river, which forms its N. and E. boundary, and is drained by the South Catawba. The surface is diversified, and the soil fertile. Iron ore is abundant. It is crossed by the Western North Carolina railroad. The chief productions in 1S70 were 34.741. bushels of wheat, 142,876 of Indian corn, 41,553 of oats, and 22 bales of cotton. There were 1,252 horses, 1,458 milch cows, 2,135 other cattle, 4,644 sheep, and 6,768 swine. Capital, Newton.
Catawbas, a tribe of Indians in North and South Carolina, on the Catawba river, now reduced to a mere handful. At the time of the settlement of those states they were a powerful tribe with 1,500 warriors. Some affirm that they came from Canada, but their language has no affinity with that of any northern nation, is closely connected with that of the Waccoes and the Carolina tribe, and has affinities with the Muskogee and even the Choctaw. They are said to have been called also Ushe-rees. They occupied Nauvasa and five other towns on the Catawba river, in a most delightful country. They were a warlike people, and were early engaged in hostilities with the Cherokees, and subsequently with the Shaw-nees and Iroquois. They were always friendly to the Carolina settlers, and served with them against the Tuscaroras and Cherokees, and in the revolution. Having improvidently leased their lands, they migrated to the Cherokees, but returned and settled on a reservation given to them. War and disease gradually reduced their numbers. From 7,500 at the time of the settlement, they had decreased to 2,000 in 1728, and 450 in 1822. Peter Harris, the last full-blooded Catawba, was a revolutionary soldier. There are now perhaps 200 half-breeds bearing the name on the reservation.