Cedar, the name of several species of evergreen trees of the order coniferm, the principal of which arc the cedar of Lebanon (pinus ce-drus, Linn.), the cedar of Goa (cupressvs Lusi-tanica, Linn.), the Indian cedar (pinns deodara, Lambert), the white cedar (cupressns thyoidcs, Linn.), and the red cedar (juniperus Virginiana, Linn.). - The cedar of Lebanon, or cedar larch, is a native of the coldest parts of Mt. Lebanon and the range of the Taurus, and from its superior magnificence became with Scripture writers a favorite emblem for greatness, splendor, and majesty. The durability and fragrance of its wood caused it to be sought for costly buildings, as the palace of David and the temple of Solomon. Though it formerly covered Lebanon with dense forests, so that fourscore thousand hewers were employed by Solomon in obtaining timber from them, yet the destruction of the trees for architectural purposes was more rapid than their growth, and in the 6th century Justinian found it difficult to procure cedar timber enough for the roof of a single church. At present they appear to be confined to a few localities, the most frequently visited among them being a valley in the Lebanon range, about 15 in. from the sea, at an elevation of 6,000 ft.

Belon, in 1550, counted here 28 cedars; Rauwolf, in 1574, found 24, and two others the branches of which were decayed through age; De la Roque, in 1588, found 20; Maundrell, in 1696, 16; Pococke, about 1740, counted only 15. Graham measured 12 trees whose circumference was from 22 to 40 ft., the largest trees having a diameter of about 16 ft. Around these there is a grove of several hundred smaller trees, apparently of a different species of cedar. See-tzen, Ehrenberg, Berg-grcn, and Bove have described other groves. Henry H. Jessup, an American missionary in Syria, in 1867 described eleven distinct groves of cedars, five in northern and six in southern Lebanon. - The cedar of Goa is found wild in parts of India and Japan, and has been naturalized in Portugal around Cintra. It is the handsomest tree of the genus cupressus, and distinguished by its abundance of long dichoto-mous pendent branchlets. - The Indian cedar is a large tree found wild on the mountains of Nepaul and Thibet, at a height of about 10,000 ft. above the sea. Its timber possesses the qualities attributed by the ancients to the cedar of Lebanon, being compact, resinous, and fragrant.

It is much used for building in India, and has been introduced into England as an ornamental tree. - The white cedar is an abundant tree in swamps in the United States southward from Massachusetts and Ohio, reaching a height of from 30 to 70 ft. It has a fibrous, shreddy bark; leaves of a dull, glaucous-green color, very small and scale-like; and an exceedingly durable wood of a reddish color. Every part of the tree is strong-scented. It is used as a material for fences, and is in the highest esteem for shingles and coopers' staves. - The red cedar is a native of North America, the West Indies, and also Japan, and attains a height of from 15 to 30 It. Its wood is odorous, of a bright red color, very compact and durable, and offensive to most insects. It is much used for the purposes of the cabinetmaker and for the outsides of black-lead pencils. - In California several varieties of the cedar attain an immense size.

Cedars of Lebanon.

Cedars of Lebanon.

Cones of Cedar of Lebanon.

Cones of Cedar of Lebanon.

Red Cedar.

Red Cedar.

Cedar #1

Cedar. I. An E. county of Iowa, intersected by Cedar and Wapsipinicon rivers; area, 57G sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,731. Cedar river, from which the county is named, flows through a narrow pass in the W. part, on either side of which its rocky banks rise perpendicularly to a great height. The surface is diversified by fertile undulating prairies and woodlands. The S. W. corner is touched by the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad, and the Chicago and Northwestern railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 632,878 bushels of wheat, 2,203,802 of Indian corn, 723,312 of oats, 141,182 of barley, 92,937 of potatoes, 20,916 of flax-seed, 38,820 tons of hay, 28,656 lbs. of cheese, 741,-650 of butter, and 35,087 of wool. There were 8,553 horses, 9,194 milch cows, 15,403 other cattle, 7,481 sheep, and 31,898 swine. There were 8 manufactories of carriages and wagons and 6 of saddlery and harness. Capital, Tipton. II. A N. E. county of Nebraska, separated from Dakota on the N. E. by the Missouri river, and watered by its affluents and those of the Elkhorn; area, 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,032. The surface is diversified, the soil fertile.

The chief productions in 1870 were 24,555 bushels of wheat, 16,900 of Indian corn, 11,875 of oats, 12,190 of potatoes, and 3,214 tons of hay. There were 224 horses, 557 milch cows, 1,324 other cattle, and 752 swine. Capital, St. James. III. A S. W. county of Missouri, intersected by Sac river; area, 435 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,474, of whom 111 were colored. Its surface is uneven, the soil productive. A railroad connects it with Fort Scott, Kansas, and with the Atlantic and Pacific railroad at Lebanon. The chief productions in 1870 were 59,377 bushels of wheat, 326,060 of Indian corn, 49,588 of oats, 17,070 of potatoes, 1,102 tons of hay, and 37,465 lbs. of tobacco. There were 3,089 horses, 2,347 milch cows, 5,680 other cattle, 7,750 sheep, and 11,774 swine. Capital, Stockton.