Chapter, the community of canons or prebendaries attached to a cathedral or collegiate church, and presided over by a dean. (See Canon.) They govern the diocese during the vacancy of the see, in some countries have the right of choosing the bishop, and act as his advisers. In England the appointing privilege was assumed by Henry VIII. as a royal prerogative. Some of the Roman Catholic cathedrals in England have their chapters, but there are none in the United States. They were suppressed in France by the civil constitution of the clergy, but restored by the concordat of 1801. The title of chapter is applied not only to the canons in their collective capacity, but also to their meetings, and to the place in which the latter are held. It is given to the assembly of members of a religious order, to the convocations of the military orders of the middle ages, and even to the meetings of certain corporations of mechanics and tradesmen. It was first used about the 8th century, and is supposed to have originated in the fact that at such sessions it was customary to read some or all of the chapters containing the rules of the community.