Charles (Wurtemberg) 307

Gustavus III. in 1792 he was appointed regent; in which situation, at a highly critical period, he preserved the kingdom for his nephew Gustavus in its constitutional form, kept it externally and internally at peace, and united for the protection of navigation in the northern seas with the Danes. In 1796 he resigned his power to Gustavus, who ascended the throne under the title of Gustavus IV. Adolphus. After his nephew's accession Prince Charles retired into private life, passing his time in literary and scientific pursuits, and appeared no more in public affairs until, Gustavus having become a religious fanatic, a revolution broke out in 1809, by which he was deposed and his uncle placed at the head of affairs, first as administrator of the realm, and afterward (June 6,1809) as king of Sweden. His reign was cast in stormy times, during the career of Napoleon; but he conducted the affairs of state with such consummate ability and prudence, that while almost every other European kingdom was in some degree a sufferer from the long-protracted warfare, Sweden not only suffered no loss, but received Norway at the restoration of peace as a compensation for the loss of Finland. Charles XIII. had married in 1774 Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte, princess of Holstein-Gottorp; but having no heir, he had adopted Prince Christian of Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg as his successor; and on his dying prematurely, chose Bernadotte to succeed him (1810).