Chatham. I. A central county of North Carolina, drained by Rocky and New Hope rivers, and traversed by the Haw and the Deep, which unite in the S. E. part to form the Cape Fear; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,723, of whom 6,830 were colored. The surface is diversified, and the soil fertile and clayey. There are extensive beds of coal in the vicinity of Deep river, which is navigable as far as the mines. The Chatham railroad traverses the county, and there is a railroad from Fayetteville to the coal fields. The chief productions in 1870 were 156,763 bushels of wheat, 304,881 of Indian corn, 124,632 of oats, 43,677 of sweet potatoes, 252,346 lbs. of butter, and 52,210 of tobacco. There were 2,561 horses, 1,470 mules and asses, 5,410 milch cows, 6,356 other cattle, 15,531 sheep, and 31,333 swine. There were 1 mining company, 1 foundery and machine shop, 1 iron manufacturing company, and 13 flour mills. Capital, Pittsboro. II. A S. E. county of Georgia, bordering on the sea, bounded S. W. by the Ogeeehee river, and N. E. by the Savannah, which separates it from South Carolina; area, 358 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 41,297, of whom 24,518 were colored. The surface is level, and partly occupied by swamps. Near the rivers the soil is fertile and productive; in other parts it is barren and sandy.
It is the most populous county of the state. The Georgia Central, the Atlantic and Gulf, and the Savannah and Charleston railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 55,220 bushels of corn, 49,680 of sweet potatoes, 63 bales of cotton, 6,300 gallons of wine, and 8,-808,064 lbs. of rice. There were 312 horses, 681 mules and asses,908 milch cows,723 other cattle, and 1,917 swine. There were 6 manufactories of brick, 2 of cars, 1 of gas, 5 of machinery, 5 printing establishments, 4 saw mills, 4 flour mills, 7 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of fertilizers, 2 of iron castings, and 1 of marble and stone work. Capital, Savannah.
Chatham, the chief town of Kent co., Ontario, Canada, 176 m. S. W. of Toronto, and 47 m. E. of Detroit, Mich., situated on the river Thames, which enters Lake St. Clair about 18 m. to the west, and is navigable for small vessels; pop. in 1871, 5,873. The Great Western railway passes through the town, and there is steamboat communication with Detroit. Chatham is surrounded by a fine agricultural country, and has a large trade in agricultural produce. Oak and walnut timber and staves are exported in large quantities. In 1871, 199 Canadian steam vessels of 2,245 tons, and 57 sailing vessels of 6,871 tons, entered; also 21 United States steamers, of 2,850 tons, and 121 sailing vessels of 8,980 tons. Many fine sailing vessels have been built here. The town has agencies of the bank of Upper Canada and the Government bank.
Chatham, a town of Barnstable co., Mass., forming the S. E. extremity of Cape Cod, about 75 in. S. E. of Boston, and 5 m. from the Cape Cod railroad; pop. in 1870, 2,411. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the merchant marine and in fishing; 30 or 40 vessels are annually employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, and 15 or 20 in the coasting trade. There are 4 churches, 1 high school, 12 grammar and primary schools, 5 post offices, and a weekly newspaper. The Chatham lights are on James's Head, at the S. E. extremity of the town, in lat. 41° 40' 20" N., lon. 69° 57' 12" W. They are two in number, fixed, and 70 ft. above the sea. There is also a lighthouse showing a fixed light, known as Monomoy light, on Cape Malabar, a narrow sandy beach extending S. into the sea some 10 m. from the main body of the town.
Chatham, a town of New Brunswick, Canada, in Northumberland co., on the right bank of the Miramichi river, near its mouth in Mi-ramichi bay; pop. in 1871, 4,203. It has a Roman Catholic cathedral, college, and hospital, a masonic and a temperance hall, and is lighted with gas. The north shore and the Quebec and gulf port steamers call weekly. The town is to be connected with the International railway. It is a port of entry, whence large quantities of lumber and fish are exported. In 1871 the arrivals were 174 British vessels of 39,390 tons; foreign, 54, of 25,803 tons; and the total departures were 210, of 57,966 tons.
Chatham, a parliamentary and municipal borough and naval arsenal of England, county of Kent, situated on the right bank of the Med-way, near its continence with the Thames, 30 m. S. E. of London, and adjoining Rochester, with a station on the East Kent railway; pop. in 1871, 44,135, including about 8,000 dockyard men and soldiers. It includes the village of Brompton just below it, on the same side of the river. It is a dirty, ill-built, irregular town, with many wooden houses and few buildings of interest. Its great feature, and the sole cause of its importance, is the vast naval establishment at its lower end, commenced by Elizabeth, and improved by her successors, until it is now one of the finest in Great Britain. The dockyard, which is about a mile long, contains six building slips, wet and dry docks, a rope house 1,140 ft. long, blacksmith shops, steam saw mills, oar and block machinery by Brunei, copper sheathing and paint mills, pattern room, arsenal, etc. Several ships in ordinary are moored in the river. To the marine barracks are attached a ship-gun battery and school. There are also barracks for the royal engineers, sappers, and miners, with a school for young officers and recruits, where lectures are given upon everything relating to the art of war.
There are good libraries for both services, and naval and military hospitals. Work was commenced on the new dockyards in 1861, and the repairing basin was completed in 1871. On the land side all the works are shut in by a strong line of fortifications, with several defences on the Chatham and Brompton sides, among which are Forts Pitt and Clarence between the former place and Rochester, Fort Gillinghani, Upnor castle, across the river, now used as a magazine, and a strong redoubt on an eminence at the S. E. end of the yard. The houses within this enclosure, which belong to the village of Brompton, are tenanted chiefly by persons employed in the yard. In 1667 the Dutch under l)e Ruyter, after destroy-ing Sheerness, sailed up the Med way with 17 light ships and 8 fire ships, broke a chain stretched across the river, destroyed several sail of the line and a quantity of stores, in the face of a hot fire from Upnor castle, and retired with trifling loss, carrying off a ship of war named the Royal Charles. In the improved condition of the defences, it is believed that such an exploit would be impossible.
New Docks and Repairing Basin.