Chautauqua, the westernmost county of New York, bounded N. W. by Lake Erie, and W. and S. by Pennsylvania; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 59,327. It is well supplied with water power, and drained by Cone-wango creek, its tributaries, and several other smaller streams. Chautauqua ridge passes through the county. Between this ridge and the lake, a distance of from 3 to 10 m., the surface is nearly level, and the soil very fertile. The country around the streams is also extremely productive. Iron ore, marble, and sulphur springs have been found in several places. There are springs emitting carburetted hydrogen, the gas from some of which has been successfully employed in lighting houses. The Erie, the Atlantic and Great Western, the Lake Shore, the Buffalo, Corry, and Pittsburgh, and the Dunkirk, Warren, and Pittsburgh railroads traverse the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 148,849 bushels of wheat, 254,110 of Indian corn, 755,451 of oats, 43,927 of barley, 314,873 of potatoes, 162,272 tons of hay, 773,830 lbs. of cheese, 5,049,037 of butter, 193.891 of wool, and 342,732 of maple sugar. There were 13,244 horses, 46,-990 milch cows, 20,511 other cattle, 40,404 sheep, and 13,429 swine.
There were 9 manufactories of agricultural implements, 53 of carriages, 13 of cheese, 18 of furniture, 8 of machinery, 2 of woollen goods, 1 railroad repair shop, 9 planing mills, 50 saw mills, 21 tanneries, 26 flour mills, 1 manufactory of ears, 1 of rectified coal oil, 1 of edged tools and axes, 1 of hardware, 2 of iron eastings, 1 of pianos, 2 of paper, 23 of saddlery and harness, 5 breweries, and 9 establishments for currying leather. Capital, Mayville.