Chemnitz, a city of Saxony, in the circle of Zwickau, at the foot of a northern offshoot of the Erzgebirge, on the river Chemnitz, 38 m. S. W. of Dresden, and 43 m. S. E. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 68,229. It is the most important manufacturing town in Saxony. In 1871 there were in the town 84 factories of woollen stuffs, G3 factories for stockings and mitts, and 25 for cotton. There were also 19 iron founderies and 38 establishments for the manufacture of machines which are especially exported to Russia. Of the hosiery, gloves, embroideries, laces, and trimmings manufactured here, large quantities are shipped to America, Africa, China, and Japan. The exports to the United States in 1871 amounted to $4,500,000; of which about $2,440,000 were cotton hosiery, $090,000 cotton and woollen gloves, $1,025,000 embroideries, laces, and dress trimmings. It is connected by railway with Dresden and Leipsic. The first church was built here by the emperor Otho I. in 938. The town became a free imperial city under Rudolph of Hapsburg, and remained so during four centuries. The reformation was introduced by Henry the Pious in 1539. The thirty years' war ruined the town, but industry revived toward the end of the 17th century, when Chemnitz began to supply the German markets with cotton goods.

In 1765 hoisery began to be made; in 1770 the first cloth manufactory was established; in 1775 the English quilt weaving was established here; the English hand loom was introduced in 1790; the Ark-wright system of cotton manufacture in 1799. The continental blockade became a source of prosperity for Chemnitz, but subsequently, under the free trade system upheld by Saxony, while the surrounding countries maintained a protective tariff, the manufacturing interests of the town received a great blow, from which it only began slowly to revive in 1834, Saxony having joined the Zollverein. The growing trade with the United States gave an additional impetus to its industrial prosperity. The cotton goods, especially hosiery, compete successfully with those of England in excellence and cheapness, one factory, the largest in Saxony, having 18,600 spindles. The town is well built, containing some fine edifices, as St. James's church, with a lofty steeple and remarkable bell, the town house, and the cloth hall. There are five Protestant churches, and one Roman Catholic church; a Lutheran gymnasium, Realschule, technical school, and commercial school, attended by many pupils from abroad; a chamber of commerce and industry, United States consulate, and several banks.

In 1872 there were published here two daily newspapers and three other periodicals.

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Chemnitz. I. Martin (Chemnitius), a German Protestant reformer, born at Treuenbrietzen, Nov. 9, 1522, died in Brunswick, April 8, 1586. He studied at Magdeburg and Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and went in 1544 to Wrietzen-on-thc-Oder, where he saved from his earnings in teaching enough to maintain him for a year at the university. The year 1546 he spent at Wittenberg, under the instructions of Melanch-thon, by whose advice he gave his attention to mathematics and astronomy. The following year he went to Konigsberg, and obtained a situation as rector of the cathedral school. His knowledge of astronomy attracted the attention of Duke Albert, who made him his librarian. Here he-became interested in theology, and finally in 1553 obtained leave to return to Wittenberg. He now devoted himself entirely to the study of the reformed doctrines, and soon became an able expounder of the Protestant faith. From the lectures he delivered while at Wittenberg on Melanchthon's Loci Communes originated his own celebrated theological work, Loci Theologici. In 1554 he accepted the pastoral charge of the church at Brunswick. Here he attacked the doctrines of the Jesuits in his work Theologiae Jesuitarum Praecipua Capita. About this time a defence of the Jesuits and the council of Trent was published, which drew from him a reply entitled Examen Concilii Tridentini, a work regarded to this day by Protestants as an able vindication of the reformed faith.

He next took up and defended Luther's views of the communion. He drew up a creed for the churches of lower Saxony, which was generally accepted. He was in favor of the Formula Concordia, and used his efforts successfully, in conjunction with Andreoa, to induce the inhabitants of Swabia, Saxony, and Franconia to accept it as a rule of faith. He was highly esteemed by all parties for his moderation, and received frequent offers of place and emolument; but he invariably declined them, that he might devote himself to theology. He also began to write a work entitled Harmonia Evangeliorum, which was continued by Leyser and by Johann Gerhard, and which appeared in Hamburg in 1704. It was translated into German by Nicolai. II. Philipp Bogislav von, a German historian, grandson of the preceding, born at Stettin, May 9, 1G05, died at Hallstad, Sweden, in 1678. Employed in the military service of Holland, and afterward of Sweden, he attracted the attention of Chancellor Oxenstiern, and at his recommendation Queen Christina appointed him royal councillor and historiog-rapher. He published a history of the war carried on in Germany by the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus (1648). He is the reputed author of a remarkable work, which appeared under the name of Hippolytus a Lapide, and was entitled De Ratione Status in Imperio nostro Eomano-Germanico, etc. (2d ed., Frei-stadt, 1647). French translations of it appeared in 1712, and at the Hague in 1762.