Chiloe. I. The southernmost province of Chili, comprising the island of the same name and the other islands of the archipelago of Chiloe, and the islands of the archipelago of Chinos. Since 1865 the entire western coast of Patagonia, up to the ridge of the Cordilleras, and its islands as far as Cape Horn, have been added to it. Exclusive of this addition, over which the jurisdiction of Chili is merely nominal, the area of the province is estimated at about 9,050 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, G2,983. The chief towns are San Carlos or Ancud, the capital, Castro, and Chacas, all on the island of Chiloe. II. An island in the above province, lying off the S. W. extremity of Chili, between lat. 41° 45' and 43° 30' S., and lon. 73° 30' and 74° 30' W. It is separated from the mainland on the N. by the strait of Chacas, about a mile wide, and on the E. by the gulf of Ancud, about 35 m. wide. It is 120 m. long from N. to S., and about 50 in breadth at the widest part; but a deep indentation reduces its breadth in the centre to about 15 m. The western coast is rocky, rising abruptly from the sea to a height of from 1,500 to 3,000 ft.; on the east the coast is of moderate elevation.

There are numerous inlets which afford good anchorage, but no large harbors; the best are San Carlos, Castro, Chacas, and Dal-cahue. The interior is little known, being filled with rugged mountains, some of which are sterile and some covered with dense forests. The climate is temperate and healthy, but is unpleasant on account of the incessant rains which prevail for ten months in the year. The air is almost continually loaded with moisture, so that it is frequently necessary to dry the wheat and barley crops by artificial means. Ice does not form, and frost and snow are rare. The soil is a rich sandy loam of extraordinary fertility, but, on account of the dampness of the atmosphere, the cereals do not thrive. The potato is indigenous, and has reached by cultivation a fair degree of excellence. Flax, tobacco, vegetables, and fruits are also raised. Agriculture is in a very primitive condition, the implements used being of the rudest description. Cattle, sheep, and swine are bred in great numbers. The horses are small, but hardy and strong. Poultry of all kinds abounds. Fish and shell fish are found in abundance along the coast, and constitute an important part of the food of the inhabitants.

Traces of coal exist, and some of the streams are strongly impregnated with copper, iron, and other minerals, but no mines have been developed. The principal manufactures are casso, a coarse woollen cloth, dyed blue, used for men's garments, ponchos, blankets, and other fabrics of wool; cables, hawsers, and ropes are also made, and salt and dried fish are prepared to some extent. The chief exports are timber, fire wood, hides, wool, hams, dried fish, brooms, and a little wheat. The imports are sugar, wine, brandy, tea, salt, indigo, hardware, wearing apparel, and household furniture. The inhabitants are whites, Indians, and mixed. The whites are either Chilenos or Spaniards, the latter being almost the only Europeans. The Indians, who are Araucanians, are few in number. The people of all classes are temperate and honest, drunkenness and crime being nearly unknown. Chiloe was discovered by the Spaniards in 1558. Castro on the E. coast, founded in 1560, was formerly the capital. - The Chiloe archipelago is composed of the island of the name and of over GO smaller islands, lying between it and the mainland, about half of which are inhabited. Several of them are well cultivated, but most are mountainous and sterile.

The principal ones are Quinchas, Lemuv, Chalbuco, and Llaicha.