Clement, the name of fourteen popes and of three antipopes. I. St. Clement, or Clement of Rome (Clemens Romanus), one of the apostolic fathers, born about A. I). 30, died about 100. He is supposed to be the Clement mentioned by St. Paul in Phil. iv. 3, as one of his fellow workers, and according to tradition was baptized by St. Peter, and elected bishop of Rome in 67, or by some accounts in 91. As the most probable accounts place his death in 100, he must on this supposition have witnessed the persecution of Domitian (95-'6). His martyrdom took place in the third year of Trajan; but nothing certain is known as to the manner of his death. The Roman breviary, in harmony with a very ancient tradition, states that he was thrown into the Euxine while exiled on the Tauric Chersonesus. In the Roman calendar his feast occurs on Nov. 23. His two epistles are contained in the collections of the apostolic fathers. II. Suidger, of Saxon birth, died at Pe-saro, Oct. 9, 1047. He was successively canon of Halberstadt, chaplain to the archbishop of Bremen, bishop of Bamberg, chancellor to King Henry III., and in 1046 succeeded Gregory VI. He crowned Henry emperor, held a council at Rome for the extirpation of simony, and is believed to have died of poison. (III.) Guibert, antipope, a native of Parma, died in 1100. Made archbishop of Ravenna through the influence of Henry IV., he was elected pope in an assembly held at Brescia in 1080, and while Gregory VII. was closely besieged by the imperial troops in the castle of Sant' Angelo. He excommunicated the lawful pope, who in his turn laid him under his ban, and never consented to absolve him.
When Gregory was delivered by Robert Guiseard and his Normans, Clement remained master of a part of Rome, held it during the pontificate of Victor III., and was expelled under Urban II. After some brief stay at Ravenna, he was enabled by the active support of the emperor to reenter Rome, whence he was finally driven under Pascal II. He died miserably after 20 years of intrusion into the papal office. III.
Paolo or Paolino Seolaro, of Roman birth, died in March, 1191. He was cardinal-priest and bishop of Palestrina, when he was elected pope at Pisa, Dec. 19, 1187. He made his solemn entry into Rome March 13, 1188, after having proclaimed a crusade against the Saracens, who had just recaptured Jerusalem. IV. Guido Fnl-codi (GUI Foulquois, Foulques, or Fouquet), of a knightly family of St. Gilles in Languedoc, died at Viterbo, Nov. 29, 12(58. Successively a soldier, jurisconsult, secretary of the king of France, bishop of Puy, archbishop of Nar-bonne, cardinal-bishop of Sabina, papal legate to England, and pope, he maintained throughout his whole career a uniform character of simplicity, uprightness, and unselfishness. Elected at Perugia, Feb. 5, 1265, he besought the cardinals to reconsider their vote, but was compelled to assume the duties of the pontificate. He signed the pragmatic sanction which ended the differences between the Roman and French courts, and rejected the reformation of the calendar proposed by Roger Bacon. Having ratified the cession of the kingdom of Naples to Charles of Anjou, made by his predecessor, Urban IV., he has been accused by some historians as accessory to the tragic end of Manfred and Conradan, the heirs of the Swa-bian dynasty.
He was a decided enemy of everything that savored of nepotism; and among the letters preserved of him is one to his nephew Pierre Gros, which is a monument of the pontiff's austere disinterestedness. V. Bertrand Gareias de Goth, or de Gautii, born at Uzeste or Villandreau, near Bordeaux, about 1204, died at Roquemaure, in Languedoc, April 20, 1314. The fact of his having been the first pope who resided at Avignon, the part which he took in the suppression of the templars, and the political game which he played with the sovereigns of Christendom, have caused the most contradictory and doubtful accounts to be written about his birth, education, election to the papal office, and the acts of his pontificate. Ordained priest at Bordeaux, he was promoted by Boniface VIII. to the bishopric of Comminges in 1295, and to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux in 1299. The Roman sec became vacant July 0, 1304, and after a stormy conclave the influence of the French king caused the archbishop of Bordeaux to be elected at Perugia, June 5, 1305. Whether on account of the distracted state of Italy and the rebellious disposition of the Roman people, or because his protector Philip the Fair prevailed on him to remain within or near his dominions, Clement V. determined to fix his abode at Avignon. His first act after his cnthroniza-tion was to absolve the king from the excommunication fulminated against him by Boniface VIII., and to create ten French cardinals.
On the other hand, he pronounced in 1311, in a council assembled at Vienne, the charges of heresy brought against Boniface to be without foundation. In May of the following year the order of templars, after an existence of 194 years, was suppressed by a solemn bull. The bull of suppression was enforced with great cruelty by Philip the Fair, who caused the grand master and other dignitaries of the order to be burned at the stake, and seized upon all their property situated within his dominions. Clement received at Avignon the homage of Robert of Naples, and henceforth protected this prince against the imperial power. Charles, a nephew of Robert, was at the same time acknowledged as king of Hungary. He excommunicated the Veiietians for having occupied Ferrara, which his troops reoccupied before the end of the year. He favored, as far as he dared, Henry of Luxemburg in opposition to Charles of Valois, the brother of the French king; had Henry crowned emperor at Rome by a commission of cardinals, and tried in vain to compel him to make peace with the king of Naples. He published in 1313 the constitutions called Clementines, which form part of the Corpus Juris Canonici. VI. Pierre Roger, born of a noble family of Limousin, died at Villeneuve d'Avignon, Dec. 6, 1352. A Benedictine monk at first, he was made bishop of Arras and chancellor to Philip of Valois, then archbishop of Rouen and cardinal, and finally elected pope May 7, 1342. He had a controversy with Edward III. of England concerning benefices, ruled that the jubilee should be celebrated every 50 instead of every 100 years, and persisted in residing at Avignon. Petrarch and Rienzi were in vain sent to him by the Romans to urge him to return to his see.
Rienzi, whom the pope made his pro-thonotary, went back to Rome, of which he became ruler under the title of tribune. The excommunication pronounced in the preceding reign against the emperor Louis the Bavarian was renewed by Clement, who also confirmed the election of Charles IV. as king of the Romans. He purchased the city and territory of Avignon from Joanna of Naples, whose husband Andrew he had crowned. Villain accuses him of cupidity and gross immorality, while Petrarch praises his culture, eloquence, and generosity. His charity was fully exhibited toward the victims of the great plague of 1348. (VII.) Robert de Geneve, antipope, born about 1342, died in September, 1394. He was the fifth son of Amadeus of Geneva and of Maud of Auvergne and Boulogne, allied by blood to nearly all the reigning families of Europe, and successively canon of Paris, pro-thonotary of the holy see, bishop of Terouanne and Cambrai, and in 1371 cardinal. Gregory XL in 1370 appointed him legate or governor of the Romagna and the march of Ancona, placing under his command an army destined to reestablish the temporal authority of the Roman see in the states of the church and the north of Italy, then in open revolt against the pope.
The cardinal-legate called to his assistance the famous Jehan de Malestroit, with his band of Breton freebooters composed of 0,000 cavalry and 4,000 infantry. After reducing the Milanese, Robert and his allies endeavored in vain to terrify the Bolognese into submission, and then ravaged the surrounding territory with fire and sword. The citizens of Cesena, indignant at these atrocities, rose up against Robert, and shut him up within the walls of Murata. In this plight he invoked the aid of Sir John Hawkwood and his " White Companions," then at Faenza. On their arrival before Murata, a full pardon was promised by the cardinal to the citizens if they would open their gates. But once outside the walls, he let loose upon his besiegers the pitiless hordes of Hawkwood and Malestroit, and 5,000 persons perished. On the death of Gregory XL, the cardinals elected an Italian, who assumed the name of Urban VI The majority of them, being Frenchmen, resented the bitter animosity shown to their nation by the new pontiff, while his haughtiness and harshness offended his own countrymen.
Under these circumstances, twelve French and four Italian cardinals met at Fondi, declared the election of Urban invalid, and chose for pope Cardinal Robert, whose sole qualification for the office, besides his Genevese extraction, was his unquestioned but unscrupulous ability. He took the name of Clement VII., and became the first of the line of the antipopes of Avignon, and the prime author of what is called the great western schism. He was at first acknowledged as rightful pope by the sovereigns of Naples, Aragon, and Castile. The rest of Italy, with all Germany, England, Brittany, Hungary, and Portugal, remained faithful to Urban. France was neutral for a time, but, as the new anti-pope promised to reside at Avignon, Charles V. saw too many political advantages in possessing the chief of the Christian world, and thus became his ardent supporter. This division produced the most lamentable results. Naples in particular became a field of intrigue and bloody strife. The ill-fated queen Joanna was induced to pay homage to Clement, who also persuaded her to adopt as her heir Louis of Anjou, brother to the French monarch, while France and Naples entered into an engagement to expel Urban VI. from Italy. Urban met this danger by proclaiming a crusade against his enemies.
England and Flanders thereupon armed themselves in his cause, and the fairest portions of the Low Countries were ravaged by Henry Spencer and his followers. Theological discussions waxed hot in the midst of these calamities, and religious men of both parties and of every Christian nation began to fear for the very existence of the Christian name. Urban VI. died in October, 1389, and Clement thereupon appealed to the cardinals to recognize him as sole pope. But the Italian cardinals elected Pietro Tommacelli, known as Boniface IX. At length, on June 30, 1394, Nicolas de Clemengis, in a memoir presented to the king of France, urged the absolute necessity of terminating the scandal of Christendom by referring their respective claims to arbitration. The suggestion was approved by the university of Paris, and the cardinals at Avignon were induced by public clamor to urge its adoption on Clement VII. This so affected him that he was seized with sudden illness and died soon after. VII. Ghilio de' Medici, a natural son of Giuliano de' Medici, and cousin of Leo X., born in Florence about 1475, died Sept. 25, 1534. Carefully educated by his uncle, Lorenzo the Magnificent, he became knight of Malta, grand prior of Capua, archbishop of Florence, cardinal, chancellor of the Roman church, and pope in 1523, his election having been carried over the heads of the Colonna faction.
As Charles V. seemed to threaten all Italy with the yoke, Clement form-ed a league against him with the Venetians and the kings of France and England. The pope, unaided by his royal allies, sought together with Venice to obtain a truce from the emperor; but he soon saw Rome sacked by the Spanish troops commanded by the constable do Bourbon (1527), and became a prisoner in the castle of Sant' Angelo. After having ceded several strongholds to his enemy, and given five cardinals as hostages, he was set at liberty, made peace with the Colonnas, and fled to Or-vieto. In 1530 he became reconciled with the emperor, and crowned him at Bologna. On March 23, 1534, Clement gave his judgment on the divorce of Henry VIII., declaring the marriage with Catharine of Aragon lawful and valid, condemning the proceedings against her as unjust, and commanding Henry to take her back as his lawful wife. The bill abolishing the pope's authority within the realm of England was introduced into the commons in the beginning of March, was transmitted to the lords a week later, was passed by them on March 20, and received the royal assent on March 30. "It was not possible," says Lingard, " that a transaction in Rome on the 23d could induce the king to give his assent on the 30th." Thus the judgment of Clement was not the cause of the separation of England from the Roman communion.
But in May following was issued the bull which is thought to have rendered the separation irremediable. In 1533 Clement had gone to Marseilles to meet Francis I., and there affianced his niece Catharine de' Medici to the heir to the French throne. He returned to Rome a prey to a slow fever brought on chiefly by anguish of spirit, which soon proved fatal. He had succeeded in making peace with the sovereigns of Ferrara and Florence, had sent missionaries to preach the gospel in Mexico, and had vainly endeavored to correct the ecclesiastical abuses and disorders of Italy. (VIII.) Oil Munoz, antipope, was canon of Barcelona when he was elected pope by the dissenting cardinals after the death of Benedict XIII. (1424). He was installed at Peniscola, but the reconciliation of the king of Aragon, Alfonso V., with Pope Martin V., put an end to his power, and by abdicating in 1429 he termina-: ted the schism which had divided the church for 51 years. He received the bishopric of Majorca in compensation for his empty pontificate.
VIII. Ippolito Aldobrandini, of a noble Florentine family, born at Fano in 1530, died March 3, 1005. Distinguished for his virtues, he became auditor of the rota, referendary of Sixtus V., and cardinal, and succeeded Innocent IX. in the papal chair, Jan. 30,1592. The principal political movement of his reign was the favor which he showed to the league against Henry IV. of France, and the absolution which he gave to that monarch when he made public profession of Catholicism. He strove to make learning and piety flourish in the church, condemned duels, crowned the poet Tasso, and raised to the cardinalate Baronius, Bellarmin, I)u Perron, and other famed men. In his reign began the controversy concerning grace, on occasion of the publication of the works of Molina, which occupied the most distinguished theologians of the 17th century. IX. Giulio Rospiirliosi, born at Pistoja in 1000, died Dec. 9, 1009. He was auditor of legation in France, nuncio in Spain, and cardinal, and succeeded Alexander VII. June 20, 1667. He cooperated with Louis XIV. in lulling the controversy between the Jansenists and Jesuits, by obtaining subscriptions to the formula which was styled the "peace of the church." He repaired the finances of the pontifical treasury, and vainly sought to unite the Christian princes in aid of the Venetians against the Turks, who were besieging Candia. X. Eniilio Altieri, born in Home, July 13, 1590, elected pope, April 29, 1670, after a conclave of more than four months, died July 22, 1676. In his pontificate began the controversy with France concerning the revenues of vacant sees.
He wholly abandoned the administration of the government to Cardinal Paluzzi, his nephew by adoption. XI. Giovanni Francesco Albani, born at Pe-saro, July 22, 1049, succeeded Innocent XII. Nov. 23, 1700, died March 19, 1721. He supported Louis XIV. in the war of the Spanish succession, recognized the archduke Charles only by constraint of the imperial troops which invaded the Papal States in 1709, and the ancient fiefs of the church, Sicily, Sardinia, Parma, and Piacenza, were given to new princes. He had a controversy with Victor Amadous II., king of Sicily, concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction in that kingdom, and received with, royal honors the son of James IL, the pretender to the throne of England. He confirmed the condemnation of the five famous propositions of Jansenius by the bull Vineam Domini (1705); and by the bull Uni-genitus (1713) he condemned 101 propositions extracted from the "Moral Reflections" of Quesnel. He promoted literature and the arts, and enriched the Vatican library with valuable oriental manuscripts.
XII. Lorenzo Corslnl, born at Florence in 1652, died Feb. 6, 1740. He was created cardinal in 1700 and bishop of Frascati in 1725, and was elected pope July 12, 1730, as successor of Benedict XIII. One of his first acts was to punish Cardinal Coscia for maladministration under the last pontificate. His reign was troubled by the disagreement between the courts of Vienna and Madrid, which excited fierce wars in Italy, and he indemnified the cities of Ferrara, Bologna, and Ravenna, which had been pillaged by the imperial troops. In 1738 he invested Don Carlos with the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, adjudged to him by the treaty of Vienna. In 1740 he restored the liberties of the republic of San Marino. He at first applauded the doctrines of St. Thomas, and gave to the schools of the Dominicans the privileges of universities, but afterward showed equal favor to the anti-Thomists. He founded in 1734 the Corsini seminary, designed for the education and conversion of young Greeks; and his efforts for the promotion of the arts and sciences in Rome were more successful than his political enterprises.
XIII. Carlo Rczzonico, born in Venice in March, 1093, became cardinal in 1737 and bishop of Padua in 1743, succeeded Benedict XIV. July 0, 1758, and died Feb. 3, 1709. He actively administered the Papal States, and was in controversy with several of the governments of Europe throughout his reign. The first question related to the Jesuits, who had been already expelled from Portugal and France, but whom he eulogized and confirmed in their former privileges by the bull Apostolictim (1705). This, however, did not prevent them from being exiled soon after from Spain, the Two Sicilies, Parma, and Malta. He attempted in vain to maintain ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the duchy of Parma; and when he excommunicated Duke Ferdinand in 1768, the Bourbons acted in combination against him according to the terms of the family pact, and France seized Avignon, Naples captured Benevento, and Spain added violence to the persecution of the Jesuits. A splendid mausoleum, one of the best works of Canova, is erected to his honor in the church of St. Peter. XIV. Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganolli, born at Sant' Arcangelo, Oct. 31, 1705, died Sept. 22, 1774. He received a learned education in the schools of the Jesuits and the convents of the Franciscans, gained distinction as a teacher of philosophy, and became successively director of the college of St. Bonaventura at Rome, cardinal, and councillor of Benedict XIV. He was elected pope as successor of the preceding, May 19, 1769.t, after the conclave had sat nearly three months, during which all the sov-ereigns of the house of Bourbon had pledged themselves either to obtain from the new pope the suppression of the Jesuits, or to throw off their allegiance to the Roman see.
His predecessor, in seeking to save the Jesuits, had involved himself in a contest with almost all Europe, and in striving to maintain ecclesiastical immunities had alienated a part of his states and had diminished the respect of civil governments for the holy see. ('lenient XIV. suppressed the reading of the bull In Coena Domini, which had irritated the Bourbon courts, but prudently and firmly resisted them when they demanded the immediate abolition of the society of Jesus. After four years of investigation into the charges brought against the society, and when Austria united with the other Catholic powers in assailing it, he at length, July 21, 1773, granted the famous brief of suppression, Dominus ac Redemptor. By this measure he prevented a rupture with the princes of Europe, and recovered Avignon, Benevento, and other places which had been seized by France and Naples. A man of unquestioned piety, learning, and ability, his pontificate occurred in evil days. The violence brought to bear on him by the Catholic courts in order to obtain the suppression of the Jesuits filled his soul with bitterness. Incontrovertible testimony establishes the fact that he died brokenhearted. The letters published as his by Ca-raccioli, his biographer, are considered unauthentic.
The Clementine museum is a monument of his munificence and love for the fine arts. Theiner published a history of his pontificate (3 vols., Leipsic, 1853), which was passionately assailed by Cretineau-Joly; and the memory of the pontiff has been vindicated by the Jesuit De Ravignan (Clement XIII. et Clement XIV., Paris, 1854).