Columbia, the name of seven counties in the United States. I. An E. S. E. county of New York, bounded E. by Massachusetts, and W. by the Hudson river; area, 620 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 47,044. In the E. part the surface is hilly, but in the W. and central portions it is generally level. The soil is fertile and highly cultivated. Iron, lead, limestone, slate, and marble are obtained in various places, and at New Lebanon are warm springs which are much resorted to. It is traversed by the Hudson River, the Harlem, the Boston and Albany, and the Hudson and Boston railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 3,932 bushels of wheat, 426,408 of rye, 336,281 of Indian corn, 942,307 of oats, 108,971 of buckwheat, 678,480 of potatoes, 112,878 tons of hay, 1,227,- 274 lbs. of butter, 233,196 of wool, and 58.199 of hops. There were 9,101 horses, 14,030 milch cows, 11,704 other cattle, 53,798 sheep, and 8,865 swine; 13 manufactories of cotton goods, 2 of drugs and chemicals, 7 of hosiery, 3 of pig iron, 7 of iron castings, 20 of paper, 2 of woollen goods, 3 breweries, 32 flour mills, 44 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 9 of agricultural implements, 3 of bricks, 10 of machinery, 19 of saddlery and harness, 17 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 8 of cigars, and 6 saw mills.

Capital, Hudson. II. An E. county of Pennsylvania, intersected by the N. branch of the Susquehanna, and drained by Catawis-sa and Fishing creeks; area, 375 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,766. Knob mountain, Catawissa mountain, and the Muncy hills, which traverse the county, are branches of the Alleghany range, and are wholly unproductive. The valleys lying between them are very fertile, and some of the uplands are also fit for cultivation. Limestone and iron ore are found in great abundance. The North Branch canal, and the Catawissa and the Lackawanna and Blooms-burg railroads traverse the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 240,759 bushels of wheat, 50,616 of rye, 589,472 of Indian corn, 406,031 of oats, 82,676 of buckwheat, 182,124 of potatoes, 22,132 tons of hay, 468,398 lbs. of butter, and 22,337 of wool. There were 4,718 horses, 5,615 milch cows, 4,718 other cattle, 6,823 sheep, and 11,911 swine; 4 flour mills, 3 . planing mills, 2 manufactories of machinery, 1 of cars, 2 of pig iron, 8 of iron castings, 19 of carriages and wagons, 9 of lime, 4 of woollen goods, 7 saw mills, and 12 tanneries.

Capital, Bloomsburg. III. An E. county of Georgia, separated from South Carolina by the Savannah river, bounded N. W. by Little river, and traversed by the Georgia railroad; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,529, of whom 9,449 were colored. It has an uneven surface, and a soil once fertile but impaired by improper tillage. A gold mine near Little river has been worked. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,699 bushels of wheat, 121,160 of Indian corn, 11,-864 of oats, 15,092 of sweet potatoes, 46,311 lbs. of butter, and 7,434 bales of cotton. There were 910 horses, 1,219 mules and asses, 2,058 milch cows, 3,858 other cattle, and 7,997 swine. Capital, Appling. IV. A N. E. county of Florida, bordering on Georgia, bounded S. by the Santa Fe and N. W. by the Suwannee river; area, 864 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,335, of whom 3,228 were colored. The surface is level, and the soil light and sandy. Pine forests cover a considerable part of the county. The Jacksonville, Pensacola, and Mobile railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 103,317 bushels of Indian corn, 24,-798 of oats, 32,316 of sweet potatoes, 15,526 gallons of molasses, and 1,264 bales of cotton. There were 733 horses, 3,562 milch cows, 7,168 other cattle, 1,654 sheep, and 8,957 swine.

Capital, Lake City. V. A S. W. county of Arkansas, bordering on Louisiana, watered by Bayou Dorcheat; area, about 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,397, of whom 3,718 were colored. In 1871 a portion was taken to form Nevada co. The surface is level, and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 3,149 bushels of wheat, 245,388 of Indian corn, 48,-024 of sweet potatoes, and 5,565 bales of cotton. There were 1,042 horses, 944 mules and asses, 2,217 milch cows, 3,889 other cattle, 5,472 sheep, and 13,652 swine. Capital, Magnolia. VI. A S. county of Wisconsin, intersected by the Wisconsin and Neenah rivers; area, 751 sq, m.; pop. in 1870, 28,802. The surface is rolling or hilly, and the soil rich. The Wisconsin is navigable by steamboats to Winnebago Portage, whence a canal connects it with the Neenah, 1 1/2 m. distant. The Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad crosses the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,517,332 bushels of wheat, 40,844 of rye, 528,-541 of Indian corn, 678,907 of oats, 51,745 of barley, 202,068 of potatoes, 44,184 tons of hay, 706,516 lbs. of butter, 168,255 of wool, and 230,762 of hops.

There were 9,758 horses, 9,659 milch cows, 10,628 other cattle, 40,413 sheep, and 11,743 swine; 3 manufactories of boots and shoes, 13 of carriages and wagons, 2 of bricks, 8 of saddlery and harness, 4 flour mills, 6 breweries, 2 planing mills, 2 saw mills, and 2 leather-currying establishments. Capital, Portage City. VII. A N. W. county of Oregon, bounded N. and E. by the Columbia river, separating it from Washington territory, and watered by the Klaskanine; area, 470 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 863. The W. border is mountainous. Coal and iron are found; the soil is good. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,619 bushels of wheat, 1,169 of Indian corn, 2,260 of oats, 10,337 of potatoes, and 1,850 tons of hay. There were 307 horses, 724 milch cows, 1,303 other cattle, 1,602 sheep, and 1,206 swine. Capital, St. Helens.