Ctesiphon, an Athenian orator of the 4th century B. C., son of Leosthenes. After the disastrous battle of Chasronea (338) he moved that Demosthenes, in consideration of his great services and sacrifices in the cause of Athens and Greece, be honored with a golden crown; whereupon he was prosecuted by Aeschines, but was triumphantly defended by Demosthenes himself, who was the real defendant.

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Ctesiphon, an ancient city of southern Assyria, on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite Seleucia. It is said to have been founded by a Parthian ruler named Vardanes, but at an uncertain date. It rose into consequence with the Parthian empire, being, according to Strabo, the royal winter residence. It was especially important at the time of the restoration of the Persian empire under the early Sassanides. Tacitus speaks of it as the seat of empire, and it was subsequently, when Seleucia decayed, so large that Septimius Severus took from it 100,000 prisoners. In the time of Gallienus its walls effectually resisted Odenathus, who ravaged the surrounding country, and it was a strong place at the time of Julian's invasion. Some have supposed. it to be identical with the primeval city of Calneh, mentioned in Scripture, but this is improbable. It has been identified with the modern Al-Madain (the two cities), near which are ruins called Tak Kesra, or the Arch of Chosroes, which are thought to be remains of the palace of one of the Sassa-nian princes.