Cumberland, a county of Nova Scotia, Canada, bounded N. by Northumberland straits, N. W. by New Brunswick, Cumberland basin, and Chignecto bay, and S. and E. by Mines channel and basin and the county of Colchester; area, about 1,600 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 23,518. It has the harbors of Pugwash and Wallace on the N. coast, and on the bay of Fundy Cumberland basin, Apple river, Advocate harbor, and Partridge island. It is watered by several rivers, and a large part of its extent from E. to W. is traversed by the Cobequid range of hills, which form a broad broken plateau. Near Cumberland basin are extensive tracts of diked marsh. Coal, gypsum, limestone, and sandstone are among the minerals. Agriculture, lumbering, and ship building form the principal branches of industry. The first settlers were French, some of whose descendants still remain. Capital, Amherst.
Cumberland, a N. W. county of England, separated from Scotland by Solway frith and the Esk and Liddle rivers, bounded W. by the Irish sea, and bordering on the counties of Northumberland, Durham, Westmoreland, and Lancashire; area, 1,565 sq. m., two thirds of which are under cultivation; pop. in 1871, 220,245. The N. and N. W. parts are low and flat or gently undulating; the midland districts are traversed by hills, and the E. and S. W. parts occupied by mountains, among which are the famous summits of Skiddaw, Saddleback, and Helvellyn, about 3,000 ft. above the sea. In this picturesque district are Lakes Ullswater, Thirlmere, Bassenthwaite, Der-wentwater, Buttermere, Crummock, Lowes-water, Ennerdale, and Wastwater, renowned for their romantic scenery, and often visited by travellers. The principal rivers are the Derwent, Eden, and Esk. The soil of the valleys and river bottoms is generally rich; the lowlands have been much improved by draining and are very productive; the mountainous districts are fit for little but sheep pastures. Grain and other produce are largely exported. The chief minerals are coal, iron, silver, plumbago, copper, lead, and limestone.
The first three are abundant; the purest plumbago is found at Borrowdale; and the iron ore is said to yield more than double the average proportion of metal. The lead mines near Alston belong almost exclusively to Greenwich hospital. The county is traversed by several railways. A ship canal extends from Carlisle to the Solway frith. A considerable extent of the great Roman wall erected by Hadrian is in this county, and many Roman remains of various kinds have been found here. The county suffered much from the Picts, Scots, and Danes, and was the scene of almost constant warfare during the border troubles. At the time of the conquest it was so desolate that William remitted its taxes, and it was not included in Domesday Book. The chief towns are Carlisle, the capital, Whitehaven, Workington, Cocker-mouth, Penrith, Keswick, and Egremont.
Cumberland, a city and the capital of Allegany co., Md., on the left bank of the Potomac, and on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad; pop. in 1870, 8,056, of whom 623 were colored. It is the W. terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, and the E. terminus of the national road. A few miles west of the town, upon the summit of the Alleghanies, commences the district known as the Cumberland coal region, which extends west to the Ohio river. The mines of the eastern portion produce excellent semi-bituminous coal, and are worked by several companies. Iron ores in the same region, and others of the older formations nearer Cumberland, have given support to a few blast furnaces. It contains the county buildings, and several handsome church edifices.