Custine. I. Adam Philippe, count de, a French general, born in Metz, Feb. 4,1740, guillotined in Paris, Aug. 29, 1793. He served with distinction in the seven years' war, and in the American war of independence under "Washington. In 1789 he was elected by the nobility of Lorraine as deputy to the states general. He was a partisan of the revolution, but his noble birth and associations made him a constant object of suspicion to the republicans. In June, 1792, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the French army on the lower Rhine, and took possession of Landau, Weissenburg, Spire, Worms, Mentz, and Frankfort; but he suddenly evacuated the German towns, and withdrew to Alsace. This gave umbrage to the leaders of the convention; but he succeeded in vindicating himself, and received the command of the northern army. However, he was finally accused of treason, sentenced to death on Aug. 28,1793, and guillotined on the following day, but asserted to the last his loyalty to the principles of the revolution. A few months later, his son and aide-de-camp, Re-naud Philippe, was doomed to the same fate.
II. Astolphe, marquis de, grandson of Count Adam, born in Paris in 1793, died at his chateau of St. Gratien, near Pau, in September, 1857. He was the author of several novels, and of a tragedy, Beatrix Cenci, which failed on the stage. He travelled extensively on the continent, and in England, and published three books of travels, of which that on Russia, La Russie en 1839, attracted general attention, and was translated into English and German.