Czermar. I. Johann Nepomuk, a Bohemian physiologist, born in Prague, June 17, 1828. He was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Gratz 1855-'6, of physiology at Cracow 1856-'8, at Pesth 1858-'60, and at Jena 1865-'70, and in 1870 was appointed professor at Leipsic. He was the first to introduce laryngoscopy and rhinoscopy into medical practice by means of a speculum, and has written many works, including Zur Orientirung im Gesammtgebiet der Zoologie (Leipsic, 1855) and Der Kehlhopfspiegel und seine Verwer-thungfur Physiologie und Medizin (1860). II. Jaroslaw, a Bohemian painter, brother of the preceding, born in Prague, Aug. 1, 1831. His earliest pictures exhibited at the academy of Prague were "Marius on the Ruins of Carthage" and "The Assassination of Wallen-stein's Companions in Eger." Subsequently he became a member of the academy of Antwerp, and produced several historical pictures, including "Sloven Emigrants," which was purchased by King Leopold I., and "The Hussites entering with Procopius the Council of Basel." Since 1850 he has produced many genre pictures, chiefly illustrating Slavic subjects.