Darlington, a N. E. county of South Carolina, in the alluvial region of the state, bounded N. E. by the Great Pedee, S. W. by Lynch's creek, and N. W. by Cedar creek; area, 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,243, of whom 16,146 were colored. It is well watered, and the river lands are very fertile; the uplands are inferior, but occasionally well timbered. Reclamations from the borders of the Pedee, Lynch's, and Black river have yielded vast bodies of the rich swamp lands for cultivation. The surface is undulating, sometimes rising into hills of 300 ft. The Pedee is navigable by steamers its whole length, and Lynch's for 80 m. from its junction with the former river. The "Wilmington, Columbia, and Augusta, the Cheraw and Darlington, and the Northeastern railroads traverse the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,308 bushels of wheat, 484,076 of Indian corn, 28.392 of oats, 122,856 of peas and beans, 170,070 of sweet potatoes, 34,591 bales of cotton, and 44,154 lbs. of rice. There were 2,550 horses, 2,918 milch cows, 6,593 other cattle, and 16,947 swine; 4 saw mills and 1 machine shop.
Capital, Darlington Court House.
Darlington, a parliamentary and municipal borough and market town of Durham, England, on the Skerne, 18 m. S. E. of Durham, and 220 m. N. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 27,730. It is built in the form of a square, the centre occupied by a market place, from which radiate several streets locally called gates. It is generally well built, and contains a Gothic church founded in 1160, and three other Anglican churches. There are 18 chapels and places of worship for other denominations, of which nine are Methodist, a free grammar school, an academy founded by the society of Friends, a national school, a school of art, a town hall, a central hall, several almshouses, a dispensary, a mechanics' institute, a public library, gas works, and a savings bank. The chief branches of industry are the carding and spinning of wool, flax spinning, and the manufacture of carpets, brass, and iron. There is an extensive market for sheep and cattle every fortnight. Darlington is at the junction of the South Durham and Lancashire railway with the main Northeastern line, and thus has direct communication with the coal and iron, manufacturing, and shipping districts of the country.
The first locomotive used for passenger traffic was run upon the railway between Darlington and Stockton in 1826, at the rate of nine miles an hour. The town is governed by a bailiff appointed by the bishop of Durham, and gives the title of earl to the duke of Cleveland.