Dauphin, the title given to the eldest son of the king of France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The official designation was: "By the grace of God, eldest son of the king of France, and dauphin of Viennois." The title originally belonged to the counts of Dauphiny, one of whom is said to have gained it from the device of a dolphin on his helmet. (See Dauphiny.) The last dauphin was Louis Antoine, duke d'Angouleme, who took the title on the accession of his father Charles X., after whose abdication in 1830 he also abdicated in favor of his nephew the duke de Bordeaux.
Dauphin, a S. E. county of Pennsylvania, bounded W. and S. W. by the Susquehanna river, and drained by many small streams; area, 530 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 60,740. The Kittatinny or Blue mountain crosses the middle of the county, and several parallel ridges extend on each side of it, while South mountain runs along the S. border. Between these ranges are fertile valleys, those of the south being of limestone formation and especially fruitful. The N. part is rich in anthracite coal, and iron ore is also found. The Susquehanna canal passes along the W. border, and the county is crossed by the Union canal, and by the Pennsylvania Central, the Northern Central, the East Pennsylvania and Lebanon Valley, the Schuylkill and Susquehanna, and the Cumberland Valley railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 422,637 bushels of wheat, 56,527 of rye, 714,886 of Indian corn, 727,535 of oats, 210,659 of potatoes, 45,672 tons of hay, 766,126 lbs. of butter, and 44,303 of tobacco. There were 7,002 horses, 10,298 milch cows, 10,371 other cattle, 4,462 sheep, and 19,239 swine; 4 manufactories of cars, 15 of carriages and wagons, 2 of cotton goods, 16 of furniture, 24 of iron in various forms, 1 of nails and spikes, 14 of machinery, 4 of engines and boilers, 2 of Bessemer steel, 14 of bricks, 29 of lime, 1 of malt, 1 bookbindery, 17 tanneries, 7 currying establishments, 32 grist mills, 5 saw mills, 18 planing mills, and 3 distilleries.