Deville. I. Charles Sainte-Claire, a French geologist, born on the island of St. Thomas in 1814. He studied at the school of mines in Paris, and wrote Voyage geologique aux Antilles et aux iles de Teneriffe et de Fogo, published in parts (Paris, 1856-64). The great eruption of Vesuvius in 1855, which he witnessed, called forth an interesting correspondence with Elie de Beaumont. He has long filled the chair formerly held by Beaumont at the college de France. Among his latest publications is Sur les variations periodiques de la temperature (1866). II. Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire, a chemist, brother of the preceding, born on the island of St. Thomas, March 11, 1818. He studied in France, and devoted himself to chemical researches. After occupying for several years a chair of chemistry in the normal school, he succeeded Dumas in 1859 at the faculty of sciences in Paris. He discovered in 1849 the properties and preparation of anhydrous nitric acid, and published in 1852 an important paper on the metallic carbonates and their combinations. In 1853 he discovered a new method of mineral analysis, by means of gases and volatile reagents. About the same time he began his experiments with aluminum, and discovered a cheap method of producing it.

He published his researches on the subject in his De l'aluminium, ses proprietes, sa fabrication et ses applications (Paris, 1859). He has since prepared several papers on a simplified general method for the production of simple metals, and on the variation of chemical affinities at different temperatures. (See Dissociation.) He published in 1862 Rapport d Vem-pereur sur la fusion de l'acier au four d reverbere sans emploi du creuset, and in the following year Metallurgie du platine et des metaux qui l'accompagnent (3 vols. 8vo, with 3 charts).