Diamantina, a city of Brazil, in the province of Minas Geraes, capital of the ancient district of Tijuco, which was also formerly the name of the city, 270 m. N. of Rio de Janeiro; lat. 18° 28' S., Ion. 43° 50' W.; pop. about 7,000. The city is built in amphitheatre on a steep acclivity, 5,648 feet above sea level. The streets are irregular, and the pavement indifferent; a few of the houses are fine, and the whitewashed walls of the others contrast prettily with the brilliant green foliage and golden fruit of the rows of orange and banana trees which surround almost every dwelling. Of the numerous churches some are handsome, especially the negro church dedicated to Nossa Senhora do Rozario, remarkable for a statue of a black Virgin surmounting the altar. Save in the public edifices, which are of stone, the building materials are mostly either mud or wood. There are three hospitals, barracks, a primary school, and a good market. Flowers, vegetables, and European fruits are cultivated in the gardens, of which one is attached to each house; and excellent water is supplied from crystalline springs.

The inhabitants are mainly occupied in washing for gold and diamonds, both of which abound in the surrounding country. (See Diamond District.)