Dobrudja, the N. E. portion of Bulgaria, Turkey, on the right side of the Danube, extending from Silistria and Varna to the mouth of that river, offering the most accessible military route from the north to Constantinople. The Russians commenced here their operations against Turkey in 1828; and again in 1854, having crossed the Danube at Braila and Ga-latz, they gained an important advantage by securing Matchin, one of the principal towns of the district. It was restored to Turkey by the treaty of peace of 1856. The population consists of 16,000 to 20,000 families of Bulgarians, Tartars, Cossacks, Turkomans, Armenians, Greeks, and Jews, who support themselves chiefly by the raising of cattle and bees, by the manufacture of salt, and by fisheries. The country is flat, containing several large swamps, and lakes on the coast. Some parts are very fertile, and produce good crops of grain; others are covered with grasses. The herbage dries up early in summer, and the flocks of sheep and herds of buffaloes go to the borders of the Danube for pasture.
The wall of Trajan crosses the Dobrudja at about lat. 44° 10' N. The most important towns in this district are Tultcha, Kustendji, Baba Dagh, and Hirsova. A railway connects Tchernavoda on the Danube with Kustendji on the Black sea.