Dolgoruki, a princely family of Russia. Grigori in 1608-'10 gallantly defended a monastery near Moscow against the Polish forces under Sapieha. In 1624 Maria married Czar Michael, founder of that branch of the house of Romanoff which still retains the throne of Russia; but she died four months later. Yakov, born in 1639, was liberally educated, and entered the civil service in 1676, and was sent as ambassador to the western powers in 1687. He entered the army in 1695, and distinguished himself in the campaign against the Turks, especially at the siege of Azov. In the war with Sweden he was captured (1700) and kept a prisoner at Stockholm for ten years. After his release Peter made him a senator and confided to him the most important affairs of state. He died in St. Petersburg in 1720. Yuri (George), a general under Alexis and Feodor,was killed in the revolt of the Strelitzes (1682), while fighting for the claim of Peter to the throne. Mikhail, his son, who had been a minister of Feodor, perished with his father. Ivan was the friend of Peter II., to whom his sister Catharine was betrothed; but the czar died before the day set for the marriage (1730), and Ivan made a vain attempt to have him name Catharine as his successor.

He then aided in raising Anna to the throne; but through the influence of her favorite, Biron, he and all his family were exiled. Afterward recalled from exile, he was accused of conspiracy, and executed at Novgorod (1739). Other members of the family were exiled. Vasili, born in 1667, entered the army at an early age, and in 1715 had risen to the rank of major general. Peter the Great sent him on a special mission to Poland, and he was afterward minister to France, to Germany, and to Holland. In 1718, for suspected complicity with the czarevitch Alexis, he was banished; but Catharine recalled him in 1726, and made him general-in-chief, and commander of the army in the war against Persia. In 1728 Peter II. appointed him field marshal, and the next year he became president of the council of war. In 1739 he was imprisoned on some trivial pretext; but when Elizabeth came to the throne, two years later, she released him and restored his marshalship. He died in 1746. Vasili, nephew of the preceding, comrnander-in-chief of the army of Catharine II., conquered the Crimea in a short campaign in 1771, and received from the empress the surname of Krimskoi. Vladimir resided for 25 years as minister of Catharine II. at the court of Frederick the Great, whose friendship he gained.

Mikhail, born in 1766, was aide-de-camp to Alexander, and served in the campaigns against France and in Moldavia in 1805-'6, and in Finland as lieutenant general in 1808, where he fell in battle. Ivan, born in 1764, spent most of his life in the public service, but cultivated letters, and was a frequent contributor to current literature. He wrote many patriotic poems, and is especially noted for his epistles and satires. He died at Moscow in December, 1823. Vasili was minister of war from 1849 to 1856, and was then for some time minister to France. He died in 1868. Pete, born in Moscow about 1817, wrote several works, among which are: Recueil de genealogies russes (St. Petersburg, 1840-41); Notice sur les principals families de la Russie (Brussels, 1843), an English translation of which appeared in London in 1858; Dictionnaire de la noblesse russe (St. Petersburg, 1854-'7); La verite sur la Russie (Paris, 1860), for which the Russian government banished him and confiscated his estates; and La France sous le regime Bona-partiste (Paris and London, 1864). He died in Bern in August, 1868. His Memoires were published after his death in Basel, in two volumes (1869-'7l).