Dresden, the fourth city of the German empire in point of population, capital of the kingdom of Saxony and of a circle of its own name, in lat. 51° 3' N., Ion. 13° 44' E., 99 m. S. by E. of Berlin and 61 m. S. E. of Leipsic, lying on both sides of the Elbe, in the midst of a fertile valley, and in the neighborhood of the most picturesque scenery of the kingdom; area of the circle, 1,627 sq. m.; pop. of the circle in 1871, 677,671; pop. of the city, 177,089, nine tenths Lutherans. The city consists of four portions, viz.: the Altstadt with its three suburbs (the Pirnaische Vorstadt, See-Vorstadt, and Wilsdruffer-Vorstadt), on the left bank of the Elbe; the Friedrichstadt, separated from the Altstadt by the narrow channel of a small stream, the Weisseritz; the Neustadt, on the right bank of the Elbe; and the Antonstadt, lying E. of the Neustadt on the same side of the river. The village of Stadt-Neudorf has recently been incorporated with the Neustadt; and the private purchase of large tracts of the public lands lying north of the former limits has also added somewhat to the extent of the city, which now contains, besides its public buildings, about 6,000 houses and 300 streets, and about 30 squares and places.

The chief thoroughfares are the Schloss, Prager, See, Pirnaische, and Wilsdruffer streets, in the Altstadt and its suburbs; the Weisseritz and Schafer streets, in the Friedrichstadt; the Hauptstrasse, the Leipziger and Grosse Meiss-ner streets, in the Neustadt; and the Bautz-ner, Anton, and Schiller streets, in the Antonstadt. The chief squares in that part of the city on the left bank of the Elbe are the Altmarkt and Neumarkt, the Schlossplatz, Theaterplatz, Antonsplatz, and Wilsdruffer-platz; on the right bank, the Bautznerplatz, Neustadtermarkt, and Palaisplatz. Two bridges across the Elbe connect the various portions of the town. The Altbrucke, built entirely of stone, crosses from the Schlossplatz, which lies on the river at its abrupt bend in the centre of the city, to the Neustadtermarkt, and forms the most frequented passage from the old town to the new. It was constructed in the 13th century, renewed in the 14th, embellished in the 18th, and restored in 1814, after its partial destruction by the French in the preceding year. It is 1,420 ft. long, has 16 arches, and is of the most solid structure, having to resist the force of the spring freshets of the Elbe, which not infrequently rises during the time of melting ice 16 ft. in 24 hours, with a current of great violence.

Jean Paul Richter called this bridge "the triumphal arch of Dresden" (Dresdens Triumphbogen). From its centre one of the best views of the city is obtained. Somewhat more than half a mile below this is the shorter Marienbrucke of 12 arches, over the Elbe just above the mouth of the Weisseritz. It is crossed by a railway connecting all the routes of railway travel to and from the city: the Leipsic and Silesian railways, the stations of which are in the Neustadt, with the Bohemian and Freiberg railways, having their stations on the southern outskirts of the See-Vorstadt. A new bridge above the Altbrucke has been projected, and in 1871 the city authorities appropriated 300,000 thalers to its completion. Three small bridges across the Weisseritz con-nect the Friedrichstadt with the Altstadt. - Dresden is in appearance rather a pleasing and attractive than a striking or imposing city; yet it abounds in buildings of great architectural beauty, and its principal streets and promenades are laid out with much taste and skill. The principal public buildings of interest surround the Theaterplatz, which is thus, as well as by its situation near the river and the Altbrucke, made the centre of attraction in the old town.

On that side of the square furthest from the Elbe is the Zwinger, an immense structure in the most elaborate rococo style of architecture, begun in 1711, and at first designed to form only a portion of a still larger palace. For more than a century it occupied three sides of a square, the fourth toward the Theaterplatz, remaining open; but in 1846 the so-called new museum was built across this space. The royal palace, an extensive, irregular building, was begun in 1534 by Duke George the Rich, but greatly enlarged and changed by his successors, so that it can hardly be said to follow any one system of construction. Its most conspicuous feature is a tower 370 ft. high. Near it is the smaller palace of the crown prince. A little to the north is the Catholic church, finished in 1756; its altarpiece is a painting by Raphael Mengs, "The Ascension," one of the most celebrated pictures in Dresden. The funeral vaults of the royal family of Saxony are underneath the sacristy. Near the northern end of the Theaterplatz, giving it its name, stood the royal theatre till Sept. 21,1869, when it was entirely destroyed by fire.

It was built under the superintendence of the architect Semper in 1838-'41, thoroughly renovated in 1864, and was justly celebrated as one of the most beautiful theatres of Germany. A new building a little north of the former site is now (1874) in course of construction by the same architect. Besides those in the Theaterplatz, the Altstadt contains a considerable number of other prominent buildings. The Bruhl palace, built in 1737 by the minister whose name it bears, and only separated by a garden in its rear from the Bruhl terrace, a beautiful and well kept public promenade on the bank of the Elbe, served as the headquarters of the provisional government established in Dresden in 1813, as the meeting place of the Dresden conferences of 1850-51, and more recently as the residence of the queen dowager of Saxony. It is an imposing building, but without great architectural beauty. Near it is the academy of fine arts (Kunstakademie). Further east, and near the Bruhl garden at the end of the terrace, is the Zeughaus or arsenal, of which the most ancient part was built in 1559-'65, the addition in 1740. The post office and the polytechnic school are large and well arranged modern structures, at opposite ends of the Antonsplatz. The town hall, in the Altmarkt, is another conspicuous public building, but is without especially interesting architectural features.

In the suburbs the chief buildings worthy of remark are the orangery, in the "Wilsdruffer-Vorstadt, a massive structure with elaborate ornamentation; the large hospital in the Frei-bergerstrasse; and the great railway station in the Wienerstrasse (See-Vorstadt). In the Neustadt, the Japanese palace, built by Augustus I. as a summer residence, but now used as a museum, is the most important structure. It stands near the Elbe, in the midst of pleasant gardens, and not far distant from the Leipsic gate. The Dreikonigskirche, with a tower about 300 ft. in height, and the Catholic church, are conspicuous buildings. The most noteworthy of the public resorts of the citizens is the Grosser Garten, a beautifully laid out and carefully kept park a short distance outside the city. A zoological garden of considerable interest is also maintained by the government, and there are several smaller gardens of some beauty. There are comparatively few public monuments in Dresden. An equestrian statue of Augustus the Strong stands in the Neu-stadtermarkt; a fine drinking fountain, in the Gothic style, ornaments the Postplatz; and several statues embellish the steps of the public buildings.

Four pieces of sculpture by Johannes Schilling, typifying morning, noon, evening, and night, have recently been placed on the Bruhl terrace. - The art collections of Dresden enjoy a world-wide celebrity, and are among' the finest in Europe. The great gallery of paintings in the museum contains some of the most valuable of existing works of art. Here are the Sistine Madonna of Raphael and Correggio's famous Notte (the night of the birth of Christ), with other works of both artists, and excellent specimens of the paintings of all the leaders of the great European schools. Titian, Andrea del Sarto, Paul Veronese, Giulio Romano, Guido Reni, Carlo Dolci, Leonardo da Vinci, and Annibale Carracci are among the Italian masters represented; Rubens, Van Dyke, Douw, and Teniers among the Dutch; and Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorraine among the French. The gallery is remarkably well arranged, and is of course free to the public, being open every day from 9 till 4 o'clock. A very curious and valuable collection of objects of art and of rare jewels and relics is that of "the Green Vault" (das grune Gewolbe), named from the place of its deposit in the long range of vaulted rooms on the ground floor of the royal palace.

Here have been brought together some of the most costly treasures in the world: rare carvings, some by Michel Angelo, and beautiful specimens of workmanship in gold, silver, precious stones, amber, porcelain, enamel, ivory, and bronze. Immense sums have been spent upon this collection by the Saxon princes, especially by those of the last century, who were the purchasers and contributors of the costliest articles. In the Japanese palace there are collections of antique sculpture, coins, china, and pottery, and miscellaneous objects of artistic and historic interest; in the Zwin-ger there is a large and valuable museum of natural history. The royal public library is also in the Japanese palace. In some departments it excels almost all other German libraries, its historical works being especially numerous and noteworthy. It contains about 350,000 volumes, with nearly 200,000 pamphlets, and 3,000 manuscripts, besides about 2,000 incunabula. Other libraries are the Secundogenitur-Bibliothek (a library descending in the younger branch of the royal family), the library of the academy of medicine and surgery, and that of the natural history museum. - The educational institutions of Dresden are numerous.

There are two gymnasia, a polytechnic school, a royal military academy (Cadettenhaus), and many public and private schools, Protestant and Catholic, and of various grades. Among institutions for charitable or disciplinary purposes are the foundling asylum, orphan asylum, reform school for boys, the Pestalozzi institution (Pestalozzistift), the city hospital (400 beds), the Catholic hospital, and the asylum for deaf mutes and for the blind. The prosperous condition of the institutions of art and science in the city is largely attributable to the efforts of the numerous artistic and learned societies existing here. At the head of these are the royal academy of arts and the Leopold-Caroline academy of investigators in natural science (Akademie der Naturforscher). Political and trade societies are very numerous, and almost every branch of industry prominent in Dresden has its representation in one of these. The leading newspapers are the government organ, the Dresdener Journal, the Con-stitutionelle Zeitung, and the Dresdener An-zeiger. - The chief industries of Dresden are the manufacture of machinery (especially of agricultural machines of various kinds), mathematical and philosophical instruments, musical instruments, gold and silver wares, china, and porcelain, the preparation of leather, and the manufacture of leather goods.

The favorable situation of the city with regard to the central region of northern Germany makes it the centre of a brisk trade, and the multitude of strangers constantly visiting the place largely contributes to its prosperity. - Dresden was founded about 1206, and attained importance so rapidly that in 1216 it was mentioned as a city in official documents, and soon after it was taken under the direct government of the margrave of Meissen, after having previously been under the rule of the Meissen bishopric, for many years one of the richest and most powerful in Germany. In 1270 Dresden became the margrave's residence, but for only one generation, as the city was sold to Wen-ceslas of Bohemia, and afterward to the margrave of Brandenburg. In 1319 it again came into the possession of the house of Meissen, then represented by Frederick the Bitten. In 1485, when the margraviate was divided, Dresden fell to the share of the margrave Albert, under whom it began to enjoy great prosperity. In 1491 it was almost entirely destroyed by fire; but it was immediately rebuilt with many great improvements. It was fortified in 1520-'28, and the fortifications were strengthened and enlarged in 1547. In 1553 the city was paved and greatly improved by the construction of new streets and buildings.

A century later it was still further beautified through the erection of an opera house and other places of amusement, and through the laying out of the great garden. In 168G that part of the town on the site of the present Neustadt was destroyed by fire; but it was rebuilt with very great improvements by Augustus I. in 1724. Under that prince and Augustus II. the city enjoyed perhaps its brightest period. The Friedrichstadt was founded by Augustus I. in 1730; new buildings and institutions were founded by both the kings; and the prosperity of Dresden was only checked by the seven years' war, during which another great fire swept away the Wilsdruffer-Vorstadt and the Pirnaische Vorstadt, and the whole city suffered greatly through the bombardment it endured in 1760. From the close of the seven years' war until the beginning of the present century it enjoyed a period of comparative peace, and had recovered much of its old beauty and prosperity when the wars of Napoleon subjected it to many evils, the chief of which was the constant quartering of large detachments of French troops within its walls; and 20,000 wounded were brought into the city after the battle of Bautzen. On Aug. 26, 1813, the French in Dresden were attacked by the allied armies, but Napoleon, by advancing large reinforcements, won on the 27th the battle that ensued (battle of Dresden). On Oct. 7 he left the city with the principal part of his army; the Russians soon after succeeded in surrounding the place, and the French garrison of 30,000 men left in it was compelled to surrender, Nov. 11. After the restoration of peace the fortifications of the city were removed, the work being completed in 1817. Many improvements were made under King Anthony, whose name was given to the Anton-stadt. During the insurrection of September, 1830, Dresden was the centre of the agitation for constitutional government, and witnessed much disturbance.

In the insurrectionary movements of May, 1849, it suffered from popular violence, streets and prominent buildings being injured by the insurgents. Measures were taken in 1874 for the removal of all mili-tary establishments to the outskirts of the city. DREUX, a town of France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, on the Blaise near its junction with the Eure, 20 m. N. by W. of Chartres; pop. in 1866, 7,237. It is situated in a pleasant valley commanded by a high hill, on which are the remains of the castle of the ancient counts of Dreux. The space within its walls is now a garden, in which stands the magnificent Greek temple built by Louis Philippe for the mausoleum of the Orleans family. In the town the hotel de ville and the parish church, a handsome Gothic structure, are the principal buildings. The chief manufactures are serges and woollen hosiery. There are also iron foun-deries, tan yards, and dye works, and a trade in cattle, sheep, and grain. - Dreux was called by the Romans Durocasses, which, contracted into Drocae, was the origin of the modern name.

It was one of the early acquisitions of the Northmen in France, and became the capital of the Norman county of Dreux, which was taken by Robert II. in the 11th century, and was afterward held by members of the royal family till 1585, when it was sold to the house of Nemours. It returned to the crown under Louis XV. The town was burned by the English in 1188. In 1562 a bloody battle was fought near it between the Catholics and Protestants, in which the latter were defeated and the prince of Conde, their commander, taken prisoner. In 1593 Henry IV. captured the town after a siege of 12 days. In November, 1870, it was occupied by the German troops.

Dresden, from the left bank of the Elbe.

Dresden, from the left bank of the Elbe.