Dumfries, a royal, parliamentary, and municipal burgh of Scotland, capital of Dumfriesshire, situated on the left bank of the Kith, 6 m. from its mouth and 64 m. S. by W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 15,435. It is irregularly built, but the streets are wide, well paved, and well lighted. Many of the houses, which are generally of red sandstone, are remarkable for elegance, and there are many handsome villas on the hills overlooking the town. There are 13 churches of different denominations, 4 endowed and 30 unendowed schools, and a number of charitable, literary, and scientific institutions. The chief manufactures are woollen cloths, hats, hosiery, shoes, and baskets. There are also large tanneries and breweries. Weekly cattle markets are held on an open space by the river called the "Sands," where large numbers of live stock are transferred to English dealers. Maxwelltown, a suburb on the opposite side of the river, is connected with the town by two bridges, one ancient, the other a handsome modern structure. - Dumfries dates as a burgh from the reign of David I. In 1306 John Comyn was stabbed here by Robert Bruce in the chapel of the Minorite convent. The town was often plundered and burned in the border wars.

Robert Burns resided here for several years preceding his death, and his monument is in the burial ground of St. Michael's church.