Dutchess, a S. E. county of New York, bounded W. by the Hudson river, and E. by Connecticut; area, 816 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 74,041. The surface is uneven and in many parts hilly. Fishkill river and Wappinger's creek supply water power, which is employed in a number of mills. Much of the soil is best adapted to grazing, but the cultivated portions are carefully improved and very fertile. Limestone, slate, marble, iron, and lead are the most important minerals. It has great facilities for communication by means of the Hudson river, the Hudson River and Harlem railroads, which intersect it, and the Dutchess and Columbia and the Poughkeepsie and Eastern railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 87,921 bushels of wheat, 174,194 of rye, 509,608 of Indian corn, 700,100 of oats, 403,687 of potatoes, 136,554 tons of hay, 1,232,252 lbs. of butter, and 135,275 of wool. There were 10,-397 horses, 27,209 milch cows, 16,732 other cattle, 35,422 sheep, and 13,540 swine; 19 iron works, 7 woollen mills, 1 cloth-printing establishment, 32 flour mills, 7 breweries, 7 tanneries, 7 currying establishments, 9 manufactories of agricultural implements, 7 of bricks, 6 of carpets, 27 of carriages and wagons, 11 of barrels and casks, 3 of cotton goods, 1 of dye stuffs, 2 of hats and caps, 1 of rubber goods, 5 of machinery, 10 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 20 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 20 of tobacco and cigars, and many others; in all there were 866 manufacturing establishments, with an aggregate capital of $6,604,866. Capital, Poughkeepsie.