This section is from "The American Cyclopaedia", by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana. Also available from Amazon: The New American Cyclopędia. 16 volumes complete..
Education (Lat. educare, to bring up, to instruct), the development and cultivation of the various physical, intellectual, and moral faculties. In a general sense, it comprehends all the means which contribute to this result in an individual from infancy through manhood - the agencies by which the faculties of the mind are drawn out, its powers disciplined, and knowledge acquired; embracing the arrangements and contrivances for the better nursing, training, and rearing of children, their physical and mental development, their nourishment, cradles, nurseries, gardens, games, and amusements; schools of every grade, from the kindergarten to the university, including special, technical, and professional schools, together with school architecture and all apparatus, means, and methods of instruction, and institutions for the instruction of every class of society, the blind, deaf and dumb, insane, idiotic, vicious, criminal, etc.; besides the instruction afforded through literature, the pulpit, and educational societies. "Education," says Paley, "in the most extensive sense of the word, may comprehend every preparation that is made in our youth for the sequel of our lives." Without treating the subject in its broadest sense, or in its strictly metaphysical relations, and without dwelling upon the various theories and speculations that have been advanced concerning education by philosophers and educators, the aim of this article will be to treat generally of the system and condition of education in the principal countries of the world, as represented by their public schools and other institutions for instruction.
Details and statistics will be found in the articles devoted to the separate countries, states, and institutions of learning, as well as separate articles on the various subjects comprised under the general head of education, such as Blind, College, Common Schools, Deaf and Dumb, Gymnasium, Idiocy, Insanity, Infant SCHOOLS, Military Schools, Normal Schools, and University. - In the earliest ages the entire education and culture of the people were in the hands of priests, who were the first founders of institutions, the first savants, statesmen, judges, physicians, astronomers, and architects; and science has been separated from religion, and teaching has been a distinct profession, only in the most highly civilized communities. Even in these, learning and schools have often been to a greater or less extent, more or less directly, under the patronage and care of religious bodies, since religion has been esteemed by all nations the highest interest of society. Historians usually account the inhabitants of India the most highly educated of the ancient nations of the ' East. Yet Hindoo learning and science have always been almost exclusively in the hands of the caste of Brahmans, who are allowed to explain the Vedas or sacred books only to the two castes next in rank.
The early culture of the Egyptians was such, that the Greeks derived from them their first lessons in science and philosophy. In Egypt, too, the Israelites obtained the knowledge which enabled them to measure and "divide the land." Public education existed only in the castes of priests and warriors, until it became more general after the rise of the Persian and Greek dominion. "While the mass of the people were trained to the mechanical arts, a few only were instructed in the mathematical sciences, and in the doctrines of morality and religion. - The theocratic constitution of the Hebrew nation, and the founding of its politics and ethics on religion, produced a mental cultivation as manifested in its literature very unlike that found among any other oriental people. The schools of the prophets are the only schools which are mentioned, but children were generally instructed by their parents in the law of Moses and the history of the nation. The obedience of children to the commands of their parents is a frequent injunction in the Scriptures. Girls were taught to sing, to play upon musical instruments, and to dance on solemn occasions; and many female poets and learned women figure in the history of the ancient Jews. After the exile the rabbis established schools to which children were sent from their 5th or 6th year, and in which, besides the teaching of the Scriptures, the commentaries and traditions, the Mishnah and Ge-mara, were taught and committed to memory.
The instruction was oral, no student ever taking notes, and the Mishnah had long been transmitted from master to pupil before it was committed to writing. The most celebrated of the early rabbinical schools were those of Jamnia (long under the direction of Gamaliel, and at which Saint Paul studied), Tiberias, Alexandria, Babylon, and Jerusalem. During the greater part of the middle ages Jewish astronomers, physicians, poets, and philosophers were scattered through the cities of northern Africa and western Asia, Spain, Italy, and France. Their greatest schools flourished in Babylonia, Egypt, Fez, Andalusia, and Langue-doc. - The culture of the ancient Persians was the exclusive care of the magi, a priestly caste of Median origin, who were the savants of the empire, the legislators, judges, interpreters of dreams, astrologers, and highest functionaries at court. There was no general system of national education, but the instruction was simple for the people, learned and religious for the magi, and military and political for the warrior.
According to Herodotus, "they instructed their boys from their 5th to their 20th year in three things alone, to ride, to draw the bow, and to speak the truth." - In Greece, boys at the age of six years passed from the exclusive care of their mothers, who educated them till then along with the girls. At about their 8th year the boys were intrusted to the care of a pedagogue, who accompanied them to school, and kept them constantly under surveillance. The schools were under the supervision but not the patronage of the state, and the fees received from pupils constituted the schoolmaster's income. Instruction began in the early morning, and was in three branches: the letters (comprehending reading, writing, and arithmetic), music (including also literature and art), and gymnastic exercises. Having learned to read, the boy was made familiar with the works of the poets, and required to commit to memory long select passages. Attendance at school was continued till the 16th or 18th year, after which those who wished became disciples of teachers of a higher order, the philosophers, rhetoricians, and sophists. For girls there were neither educational institutions nor private teachers.
It was in obedience to the principles of the code of Solon that Athens became the centre and mother of liberal culture. Though education, like religion, was recognized as a part of the political constitution, yet the state left it to parental interests and affection to educate the young, ordaining only certain general rules, chiefly in behalf of morality. Thus every citizen, under a severe penalty, was required to teach his son to read and to swim; he was also to fit him for some occupation, otherwise the son would not be obliged to support him in his old age. Intellectual and aesthetic culture was always prominent in Athenian education, and gymnastic training was encouraged as much in the interest of physical beauty as of physical strength. - The Hellenic methods of education were in most respects copied by the Romans, who, however, at first laid greater stress on vigorous corporeal exercises and the encouragement of patriotism. The ancient title of the schoolmaster was master of the games (ludi magister), and instruction was entirely independent of the state till near the time of the emperors.
Under the empire the Greek literature was taught to the sons of the wealthy as carefully as the Latin, and the education was completed by rhetoricians, who in the time of Quintilian often received a salary from the public treasury. Athens, where there was an academy with 10 professors, was much frequented by the young Romans, and a school of high repute was founded in Constantinople by Constantine and reorganized by Theodosius the Younger. Girls were often carefully educated during the latter period of the empire; and from about the close of the republic there appear to have been schools designed for them exclusively, where they were rarely visited by their fathers. - The early Christians, unable to found separate schools for the education of their children, either instructed them at home or sent them to pagan schools. The most flourishing of these schools in the 2d century was that of Alexandria, where a multitude of pagans, Jews, and Christians prosecuted their studies together. By the side of this ancient institution soon arose the Christian school of the catechists, said to have been founded by Pan-taenus in 181, in which Christian theology assumed a regular and scientific form. Similar schools were soon established at Caesarea, An-tioch, Edessa, etc.
In the West there were till the 5th century pagan schools in the largest cities, as Carthage, Rome, Milan, Treves, Marseilles, and Lyons; and owing to the paucity of the Christian institutions, it was common for distinguished doctors of the church to assemble around them the young men who purposed entering the priesthood, and to instruct them by their conversation rather than by regular lessons. Early in the . 5th century learning found a refuge in the monasteries, which had been introduced in the East for purposes of solitude and contemplation, but in the West for quiet and union amid the disorders of society. In the 6th and 7th centuries the schools were of three classes, the parochial, the cathedral or episcopal, and the cloistral or conventual. The Irish monasteries at this time surpassed all others in maintaining the traditions of learning. The course of seven sciences or liberal arts, divided into the trivium (grammar, dialectics, and rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music), was introduced in the 6th century, and defined in two jargon hexameters :
Gramm. loquitur; Dia. vera docet; Rhet. verba colorat; Mus. cunit; Ar.numerat; Geo. ponderat; Ast.colit astra.
The 7th century, says Hallam, was the nadir of the human mind in Europe, and its movement in advance began with Charlemagne before the close of the next. This monarch invited to his court Alcuin from the cloisters of York, Clement from Ireland, and Theodulf from Germany, and reestablished the palatial school, in which the sons of some of the nobility were educated with his own children, and which accompanied him wherever he went. In this school (called the palatine academy), and afterward in those of Tours and Fulda, the course of instruction embraced all the learning of the age. He also founded schools in every bishopric and monastery, in which reading, singing, computation, grammar, and the learning of psalms by heart were the exercises. Less than a century after Charlemagne, King Alfred revived letters and schools in England, which had been almost extinguished by the Danish invasion, rich libraries having disappeared in the pillage of churches and convents. At his accession Wessex could not boast a single person able to translate a Latin book.
He invited to his court the most celebrated scholars, established schools in different parts of his kingdom, and ordained that the children of every free man whose circumstances would allow it should acquire the arts of reading and writing, and that those designed for civil or ecclesiastical offices should be instructed in the Latin language. Yet his efforts in behalf of learning were as unfruitful after his death as those of Charlemagne had been in France, and were succeeded by the mental torpor of the 10th century, in which, it has been remarked, no heresies appeared. As learning in that age was chiefly contained in a dead language in all the countries of Europe, it did not reach the mass of the people; the art of writing was so rare among laymen even of the higher ranks, that it was called the clerical art. In the 10th century, the darkest period of Christian literature, the Arabs had flourishing schools of learning from Bagdad to Cordova. Of their 17 universities, that of Cordova enjoyed the highest reputation, and is said to have possessed a library of 600,000 volumes.
Grammar, the art of versifying, history, geography, astronomy and astrology, chemistry and alchemy, mathematics, and medicine were all studied; and in the last two departments the Arabians made important improvements on their Greek masters. An elementary school was attached to every mosque, in which reading and writing were taught, the pupils at the same time learning many poems by heart. The universities were chiefly occupied with theology, jurisprudence, and speculative philosophy; and for the natural sciences there were special schools, while medicine was taught in hospitals. The rise of the scholastic philosophy and of the troubadour poetry, the institution of universities, and the return to a profound study of the Greek and Latin classics, were the literary steps during and after the 11th century which preceded the revival of learning in the 14th and 15th centuries. - From the 12th and 13th centuries, the era of the schoolmen, date 20 universities, including those of Paris, Montpellier, Oxford, Cambridge, Bologna, Padua, Rome, Salamanca, and Lisbon. That of Bologna was especially famous for its revival of the civil law, and attracted lawyers and students in large numbers to northern Italy from remote parts of Europe. Paris was unrivalled in the department of theology, and Montpellier in that of medicine.
During the period preceding the revival of learning female education declined. Only a few schools were maintained in the large cities for the instruction of girls in reading, and the inmates of convents were taught hardly more than to repeat their prayers and to practise embroidery and other needlework. When the Byzantine empire approached its fall, the Greek scholars who had there preserved some acquaintance with ancient learning took refuge in Italy, where the love of letters had been already awakened by the genius of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, and where industrious scholars under the patronage of princes were devoting their lives to the recovery of manuscripts and the revival of philology. From Italy the more profound study of classical authors passed to the other countries of Europe, and a contest was long maintained between the scholastic and the anti-scholastic studies; between the Aristotelians, who included the most learned ecclesiastics, and the Platonists, to whom were attached most of the cultivators of polite literature. Agricola in Germany, Valla in Italy, and above all Ramus in France, wrote against scholasticism. It was assailed by the reformers and defended by the Jesuits, and is still in honor in some of the Spanish universities.
Purbach, Regiomontanus, and Nicholas Casanus were the first to promote the study of the higher mathematics. Nicholas de Clemangis and Gregorius Tifernas revived the classical taste in France, Vitelli and Coilet in England, Lebrixain Spain, and Reuchlin in Germany. The pious "Brethren of the Common Life," whose first school was founded by Gerard Groot at Deventer in 1376, also exerted a wide influence. Their schools were extended throughout the Netherlands and Germany, were distinguished alike for piety and solid acquirements, and attracted students even from Italy. In Brabant the university of Louvain was the centre of a wide intellectual culture, and the alma mater of many celebrities. Its European reputation increased till in 1570 it had 8,000 students. The golden age of the literature of the Spanish Netherlands was that of Albert and Isabella in the first quarter of the 17th century, in which the triumph of the renaissance was completed. - Education and the doctrines concerning it played an important part in the movements of the Protestant reformers, and also in the reaction in favor of the papacy under the Jesuits. The revival of intellectual culture among the people was associated in the mind of Luther with religious reform, and in 1528 with the aid of Melanchthon he drew up the plan of studies which was followed in the Protestant common schools of Germany till the close of the century.
The first class learned to read, to repeat from memory a few distichs, to write, and to sing, and began the study of Latin. The second class studied Latin, grammar, and music for an hour daily, read and interpreted the fables of AEsop, the Poedologia of Mosellanus, and the colloquies of Erasmus, and committed to memory parts of Terence and Plautus, and some of the psalms and other portions of Scripture. The third class advanced to the Latin poets, and to exercises in dialectics and rhetoric, and were required to speak in Latin, and to write an exercise in that language weekly. Luther also assailed the Aristotelianism and scholastic methods which prevailed in the universities, and recommended the establishment of libraries in every town. Education was in like manner encouraged by Zwingli and Calvin, the latter of whom caused the erection of a splendid edifice for the gymnasium of Geneva, to which eight distinguished professors of Hebrew, Greek, philosophy, and theology were invited. About this time the gymnasium of Strasburg under Johann Sturm became the most flourishing of the age, and in 1578 it had more than 1,000 students, 300 of whom were of noble or princely birth.
The Protestants having awakened a zeal for learning, the Jesuits determined to avail themselves of this zeal in the interest of the Catholic church, and to combat the reformation with its own weapon. They cultivated to the highest possible degree all departments of science, and employed the authority of learning in favor of the pontifical power. From Cologne, Ingolstadt, and Vienna they spread between 1550 and 1560 throughout Germany. Opposed in France by the Sorbonne, the university, and the parliaments, they did not establish their first school in Paris till 1665; but in 1750 they had won from the ancient Benedictines their pedagogic laurels, and possessed in France 669 schools, which were attended by the children of the princes and nobles. - Between the latter part of the 17th and the close of the 18th century, four distinct theories and methods of the pedagogic art arose, which are usually named the pietistic school, the humanistic school, the philanthropic school, and the eclectic school. Jansenius in the Netherlands, the Wesleys in England, and especially Spener and Francke in Germany, were the first representatives of the pietistic tendency.
Spener was the teacher of Francke, who established a school at Halle for children of both sexes, and another for teachers, on the principle that religious and moral instruction should be made more prominent than intellectual acquirements, that the end of education should be a living knowledge of God and of pure Christianity. It was succeeded by similar schools in many other cities. In Greek the New Testament was the only text book. Hebrew was one of the studies of the regular course, and a change of heart was declared essential to successful scholarship. The humanistic school maintained the principle that the ancient languages and literature, especially the Greek and Latin (which were termed the humanities), should be the foundation of education, and should be exclusively studied till the pupil went to the university. Basedow, Campe, and Salzmann were the foremost representatives of the school which made philanthropy the aim of all education, and conformity to nature its basis. Under the name of eclectics are classed those who were the disciples of no exclusive school, but from truly philanthropic motives sought to instruct classes hitherto neglected.
Such was the origin of the efforts for the instruction of deaf mutes by Heinicke, Braidwood, the abbe de 1'Epee, and Sicard; the instruction of the blind by Valentin Hauy, Klein, and Lenne; the institution of Sunday schools by Robert Raikes, Oberlin, and others; the organization of reformatories by Odescalchi and Tata Giovanni in Rome, and by the philanthropic society in London; and many of the special schools of commerce, agriculture, mines, the arts of design, and other departments. - In Germany since the latter part of the last century the principles of education have been actively discussed, the most prominent writers on the subject, besides some who have been already mentioned, being Sulzer, Miller, Weisse, Ehlers, Busch, Feder, Rese-witz, Gurlitt, Funk, Heusinger, Niemeyer, Schwartz, and Beneke. But the man who for the last hundred years has exerted the greatest influence on education is the Swiss Pesta-lozzi. According to the principles developed by him in various writings, education must begin early, under the discipline of home and the direction of parental wisdom and power. It must proceed according to the laws of nature, slowly and uninterruptedly, the teacher exciting the child to activity and rendering him but a limited amount of assistance.
Individuality must be held sacred, and carefully studied and encouraged. Verbal teaching is futile unless it be implanted on previous mental experiences and verified by the senses. A development by merely mental operations, which the Socratic method favors, is vain and harmful, for the child can only utter a judgment concerning an object when he has examined it experimentally, and learned precisely to distinguish its qualities and attributes by words. Form, number, and language are the elements of knowledge, the principles by which the mind must be developed; and a thorough acquaintance with them in the various departments of learning constitutes an education. Therefore mental arithmetic, geometry, and the arts of drawing and modelling objects of beauty, are as important exercises as the study of languages. The school should be a place of liveliness and activity, and the scholar should have opportunity to exercise and reveal his power. The system of Pestalozzi has been adopted in the Prussian schools with slight modifications, and has exerted a greater influence than any other on teachers in England, America, and the north of Europe. His system was modified by Fellenberg in his institution at Hofwyl, by Jacotot in the university of Louvain, and by Felbiger, bishop of Sagan, in the schools which he organized.
There were combined at Hofwyl an agricultural institute, theoretical and practical, a rural school for the poor, a superior school for the sons of the nobility, an intermediate school for those of the middle classes, and a normal school for the instruction of the teachers of the canton. To Frobel, the founder of the kindergarten, also belongs high honor for his reform in the principles of education. - While secondary schools have a long history, public elementary schools for the poor are of modern origin. Although government regulations concerning schools had long existed in Prussia, the present system of that country may be said to date from 1794, when the general common law (allgemeines Landrecht), which was prepared by order of Frederick the Great and promulgated under his successor, declared all public schools and institutions of learning to be under the supervision of the state, and established regulations for their support, management, inspection, appointment of teachers, obligatory attendance of pupils, etc.
By the same order it was declared that teachers in "the gymnasia and other higher schools have the character of state functionaries." The constitution of 1850 declared that "all public and private establishments are under the supervision of authorities named by the state." National education in France may be said to date from 1833. Prior to that time many institutions for secondary, superior, and the highest culture had been liberally supported, but the educational wants of the masses had been greatly neglected. In 1831, when Guizot was minister of public instruction, Victor Cousin was sent to Prussia to study and report upon the educational system of that country. As a result of this mission a new school law for France was passed in 1833, many features of which still remain. In England until recently the establishment and maintenance of schools have been left entirely to the people. In 1834 the government began to make grants in aid of schools, and in 1839 a committee of the privy council on education was constituted for the distribution of the money. The most important step toward governmental control of education was made in 1870, when grants were authorized for the maintenance of elementary schools and their partial supervision by the government.
For a more detailed statement of the historical development of national education, see Common Schools. - In all civilized countries education has come to be regarded by the government as a leading force not only in producing the best results in public intelligence, virtue, and citizenship, but also in developing the physical strength, as seen in war, and the material prosperity of the nation, attended with a corresponding increase of the national wealth. This is attested by the advantage gained in agriculture, commerce, industry, and skilled labor in general, by those nations in which schools of agriculture, commerce, the arts and trades, and other special schools have received their highest development. The superiority of the Prussian arms has been attributed not only to the military organization and discipline of that country, but also in a large measure to its magnificent system of civil education. On maps showing the distribution of wealth and illiteracy in the United States, the maximum of the former is generally found in those sections where the minimum of the latter exists. And so the wisest statesmen and publicists have found that the best way to diminish the crime and pauperism of a community is to lessen its ignorance.
Dr. Wines reported in 1869 that 95 per cent. of the convicts in France were illiterate, 34 per cent. in the English county or borough prisons, 49 per cent. in Belgium, 83 per cent. in Switzerland, 40 per cent. in Italy, and 35 to 38 per cent. in the Netherlands; while in the United States the percentage is about 22 of the totally ignorant and about 50 of the very deficient. Mr. E. D. Mansfield, in discussing the relation between crime and education (in the report of the United States bureau of education for 1872), concludes : " First, that one third of all criminals are totally uneducated, and that four fifths are practically uneducated; secondly, that the proportion of criminals from the illiterate classes is at least tenfold as great as the proportion from those having some education." According to the same authority, about 60 per cent. of paupers in the United States are totally ignorant, and about 13 per cent. of illiterates are paupers. "In other words, the proportion of paupers among the illiterates is 16 times as great as among those of common education." Dr. Jarvis of Massachusetts has shown that an important relation exists between education and health.
Dividing the marriages for a given period in England into classes, in the first of which from 20 to 30 per cent. of the women were illiterate and in the second from 60 to 70 per cent., he found that 14.65 per cent. of the children born in the first class died under one year old, and 24.87 per cent. of those in the second. These and other considerations have recently led to a fuller recognition of the right and duty of the state to provide for public education. Hence in France, Russia, Italy, Great Britain, the United States and other countries, radical reforms in the system of education have been introduced or agitated, and the plan of compulsory education for all children of school age has been widely extended and is still undergoing a rapid growth. In Prussia, as early as 1763, a decree of Frederick the Great required parents to send their children to school, a duty which is still enforced by admonitions, reprimands, and fines. Obligatory attendance is a prominent feature of the educational system of Austria, Italy, Switzerland (except in the four small cantons of Geneva, Schwytz, Uri, and Unterwalden), Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other European states.
The new school law of England simply permits the school boards to enforce attendance of children between the ages of 5 and 13 years; while in France compulsory education is among the reforms agitated. In the United States provision is made for compulsory school attendance in the constitutions of several states. In some states laws to this effect are now in force, while in numerous others the highest officers of public instruction have urged the necessity of such laws. Educators have usually classified general education into three grades, primary, secondary, and superior; and the schools of all countries have been arranged correspondingly. The lines of separation, however, are not drawn with precision, and the classification varies in different countries. Thus in Europe the primary division embraces the lower grades of schools; the secondary, the colleges, gymnasia, and Realschulen; and the superior the universities. In the United States, the primary division embraces the lowest grade of schools; the secondary, the academies and high schools; and the superior, the higher institutions of learning, such as colleges. Some authorities regard colleges as within the second class, and assume that there is no provision for superior education in this country.
Outside of these grades is the special education afforded in all countries by the professional and technical schools. Perhaps a more satisfactory classification would be: 1, elementary schools, including common schools, evening schools, and schools for the blind, deaf and dumb, and idiots; 2, middle schools, comprising colleges, gymnasia, realschulen, etc.; 3, professional and technical schools; 4, universities. - The plan of public instruction in Prussia, which also prevails generally throughout the German states, has long been preeminent as the most complete system of national education yet developed. The cardinal features of this system are: 1, the right and duty of the state to establish a sufficient number of elementary schools for all children of school age; 2, the obligatory attendance of every child between the ages of 7 and 14 years at some elementary school, public or private; 3, the special preparation of teachers, as far as practicable, for every grade of school, with opportunities for professional improvement and promotion, and guaranty of pecuniary aid when sick, infirm, or aged, and for their families in case of death; 4, a system of inspection, intelligent, frequent, constant, and responsible, reaching every school and every teacher.
The superintendence over all institutions of instruction, private and public, belongs to the state. Formerly the supervision of the schools in the lower grade was held largely by the clergy, but in 1872 a new school law was passed looking to the entire separation of school and church, and withdrawing the direction of educational matters from the clergy as such, although clergymen may be and are appointed by the state as school superintendents. For political purposes the state is divided into 11 provinces, which are subdivided into 35 regencies (Regierungsbezirken), and these again into districts (Kreise) and parishes (Gemeinden). These divisions are also adopted for educational purposes. The supreme authority in all matters relating to education is vested in a minister of public instruction, who is appointed by the crown. Local supervision is vested in the provincial authorities, who have general control of secondary education, including the gymnasia, realschulen, and primary normal schools. Each province has a Consistorium, which is divided into two sections, one for ecclesiastical purposes, and the other, the Schul-collegium, for educational affairs. The members of the latter receive their appointment and salary from the crown.
As a general rule, the administration of the school fund provided by the state, and the management of the lower and elementary schools, are exercised by the civil government of the province, while the Schulcollegium supervises the higher schools, the general system of instruction and discipline, the selection of text books, the examination and appointment of masters, and the examination of those who leave school for the universities. Immediately below this is the church and school section of the supreme council of the regency, presided over by the school councillor (Schulrath), and charged with the examination and appointment of teachers in the primary schools, with keeping the schools in good condition, and with collecting and disbursing school funds. The educational affairs of a district are intrusted to the councillor of the district (Landrath) and the inspector. Finally, each commune or parish must have its school, and each school its committee of supervision (Schulvorstand), consisting of the curate, two magistrates, from two to four notable persons of the parish, and its inspector, usually the parish clergyman.
In the larger towns and cities the general management of all the schools is intrusted to a board consisting of the burgomaster (mayor), members of the municipal council, pastors, and directors of the higher schools. There is also a committee of management for each school. A complete plan of inspection exists throughout the system. Each of the heads of council, from the highest to the lowest civil division, is appointed by the government, and has the power of veto over the acts of the council, board, or committee over which he presides. Thus the entire school system is completely under the control of the general government. In case the funds arising from endowment, tuition, etc, are insufficient, the deficit is made up by local taxation. The rate of tuition is low, generally one gro-schen (2 1/3 cents) a week in the villages, and from 10 silver groschen to 2 1/2 thalers a month in the towns. Children unable to pay this amount may have the benefit of a deduction, or be admitted entirely free. Each parish or commune must maintain its own school; if it is unable to do so, the district, the province, and the state share the expense. Attendance upon the schools is obligatory du-ing school age, 7 to 14, and is enforced by admonitions, reprimands, and fines.
A close supervision over the examination and appointment of teachers is maintained by the government, and no teacher is appointed until his moral and educational qualifications have been proved. Private schools may be opened by individuals, but they must be under state supervision, and the teachers must be examined and receive permission to teach from the government authorities. The schools of Prussia may be divided into five general classes: 1, primary; 2, burgher; 3, Realschule; 4, gymnasium; 5, university. Besides these there are normal schools or teachers' seminaries of three grades, and a great variety of special and professional schools devoted to instruction in the practical arts, and the application of science to industry, the liberal professions, and the fine arts. In country or smaller towns the Volksschulen combine the American primary and grammar schools; children enter at six years of age, and remain till their school education is completed. In the burgher schools the course of instruction covers eight years, and embraces the ordinary elementary studies, prominence being given to religious instruction, music, drawing, and gymnastics. During the first three years the sexes are taught together; afterward in separate schools, except in villages where the population is small.
Generally no opportunities are offered in the public schools for the higher education of girls, except that afforded by the burgher schools; but in several of the cities schools have been organized for this purpose. Instruction in household work, handiwork, or some branch of trade, is given in the regular course, or in separate departments. The burgher schools are of several grades, the highest ranking with the American high school. The realschule has a "realistic" course (Realia), which differs from that of the gymnasium mainly in being less classical, and which provides a broad course of education for those intending to pursue commercial or mechanical occupations, or prepare for any of the special schools without entering the university, their object being to "prepare by scientific education for those higher vocations of life for which academic studies are not required." Realschulen are classified into those of the first rank, those of the second rank, and higher burgher schools. The ordinary studies of the realschule are German, French, English, Latin, mathematics, geography and history, natural history, physics and chemistry, mechanics, drawing, religion, singing, and turning or gymnastics.
Students are usually admitted at seven years of age, and complete their studies at 15 or 16. From 32 to 34 recitations, of 50 minutes each, are required each week.' The highest secondary institution is the gymnasium, which is intended to prepare students for the university. The general plan of instruction is fixed by the state, and great prominence is given to classical studies. The course covers nine years, students being usually received at 9 or 10 and graduated at 18 or 19. The number of recitations varies each year, and ranges from 25 to 32 a week, exclusive of singing and turning. The realgymna-sium has a classical and a realistic course combined. On the completion of the course in the gymnasium, a thorough examination (Abi-turienten-Examen) is held, which the student must pass satisfactorily before obtaining the certificate (Maturitatszeugniss) by which alone admission to the university is secured. A marked feature of the Prussian system is the governmental supervision of university education. The universities, of which Prussia has ten, were in most cases founded by the sovereign, who endowed them with lands and money. The government retains supreme authority over these institutions, and even appoints the professors; it also provides for deficiencies in their incomes.
Special officials (Curatores) form the connecting link between the government and the universities. The German university comprises four schools called faculties: theology, law, medicine, and philosophy. The last named comprises language and literature, the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences; in short, the whole range of knowledge as considered independent of the professions. The course of study is commonly four years. Most thorough instruction is given by means of lectures, and examinations are held for degrees. The extent of the instruction provided may be inferred from the fact that nearly 400 distinct courses of lectures, covering the entire realm of science, letters, philosophy, and religion, are given during the year at the Frederick William university in Berlin. To be qualified for a learned profession, or for employment as a teacher in the higher schools and universities, it is necessary to have completed the university course and to have graduated. In the German empire in 1873 there were 21 universities, with 1,734 professors and 18,858 students. - The classification of schools in Austria is similar to that in Prussia. The school law of 1869 provides that in every common elementary school (allgemeine Volksschule) at least the following subjects shall be taught: religion, language, arithmetic, the most necessary elements of natural philosophy, geography and history, with particular regard to the country and its constitution, writing, geometrical forms, singing, and gymnastics.
Girls shall also be instructed in needlework and housekeeping. The plan of instruction is determined by the minister of education, on the recommendation of the provincial school boards. Religious instruction is cared for and superintended by the respective church boards. The time required to complete the course in these schools is eight years. The obligation to attend begins with the 7th year and lasts until the 14th is completed. Parents or their substitutes, as well as the owners of factories and industrial establishments, are responsible for the attendance of children, which may be enforced. The law provides that "the obligation to establish schools shall be regulated by the provincial legislature, on the principle that a school under any circumstances must be established in every locality, where, in a circuit of one hour's walk, on an average of five years, more than 40 children can be found who have now to attend a school more distant than one hour's walk. For children in manufacturing establishments who may be prevented from attending the common school, the proprietors of such factory, etc, shall establish, either by themselves or in connection with other manufactories, separate schools of the same grade as the public schools." All schools and educational institutions founded or supported wholly or entirely by the state, by a province, or by municipalities, are accessible to all citizens of the state, without regard to creed.
A well organized system of inspection extends to every grade of instruction. The institutions for secondary and superior instruction are similar to those in Prussia. Austria has 4 universities, with (1873) 443 professors and 5,382 students. The institutions devoted to education in special branches comprise theological seminaries, schools of surgery, higher commercial colleges, polytechnic schools, nautical schools, schools of midwifery, of mining, of forestry, of agriculture and horticulture, military schools, conservatories of music, academies of fine arts, and a school of industrial art. - The rigid supervision exercised by the government over education in Germany is perhaps most marked in the measures adopted to secure efficient teachers. The teacher, being trained, examined, appointed, and paid by the government, is regarded as an officer of the government. He is virtually exempt from military service, and is entitled to a pension when no longer able to teach. No person is appointed as teacher who is not in good standing in the church, Lutheran, Catholic, or Jewish. The teachers' seminaries or normal schools are of two grades, designed for the training of teachers for the lower primary schools of the rural districts, and the burgher and other higher schools of the cities.
There are separate schools for males and for females. Each one consists of the professional or normal school proper and a primary model school, or school of practice. The number of pupils in each school is limited to about 70, who are admitted by competitive examination, which is open to all over 17 (in some states 18) years of age, who possess certificates as to character, health, natural aptitude, etc. Before being admitted, the candidate must sign an agreement to teach for three years after completing the course in the seminary, or to pay the whole cost of his education therein. The course of study is usually three years, and embraces religious, intellectual, and industrial instruction. Frequent examinations are held as a test of progress. The study of music and drawing and practice in the art of teaching are more prominent features perhaps than in any other country. For a more comprehensive education of teachers special courses are established in some of the universities and technical schools, and their improvement is further provided for by means of educational journals, libraries for teachers, periodical conferences for teachers, and special courses for professional improvement.
In no other country has the kindergarten been so successfully established as in Germany. This institution, originated by Frobel, provides for the education of infants between the nursery and the school by means of plays, games, stories, conversations, singing, and other simple exercises adapted to the nature of the child. Much importance is also attached to object teaching, which is a continuation of the kindergarten, and designed especially to develop the perceptive faculties. The kindergarten has also been introduced into Italy and other continental countries and the United States. Many of the seminaries of Germany for training female teachers have departments for the preparation of teachers for the kindergarten. Another important feature of the German system is the numerous schools open evenings and Sundays for adults who are unable to attend the ordinary schools. - In France, as in Germany, every grade of public instruction is under the direct control of the government, which acts through the minister and superior council of public instruction.
This council under the late empire consisted of the minister, three senators, five bishops or archbishops, three councillors of state, three members of the court of appeals, eight inspectors general, three clergymen (Lutheran, Reformed, and Jewish), five members of the institute, and two heads of private educational establishments. The schools are classified as - 1, primary, including all elementary and the lowest grade of normal schools; 2, secondary, comprising the communal colleges, lyceums, and the second grade of normal schools; 3, superior, comprising the academies. To insure a high standard of excellence in the schools of every grade, a rigid system of inspection prevails. Every commune is required to establish and maintain schools for primary instruction, and is aided by the government whenever the school fees and local taxes are insufficient. Instruction in religion is given in all public schools, but no pupil is obliged to receive instruction in any creed against the wish of his parents. Private schools are encouraged, but instructors in these must pass the examinations required of those serving in the public schools; and the proficiency of their pupils and their general management are subject to governmental supervision.
The lyceums are founded and maintained by the state with the cooperation of the departments and towns, while the communal colleges are founded and maintained by the communes. The arrangement of classes and studies is fixed by the government, and is the same in both. Superior education is provided for by the academies, of which there are 15 in France proper, each constituting the educational centre of an academy district and embracing several departments of the country. These institutions correspond to the universities of other countries, though many of them are inferior to the German universities. A complete academy embraces the five faculties of sciences, letters, theology, law, and medicine. Only the academy of Paris, however, includes all these faculties. All have faculties of letters and science, five of theology, ten of law, and two of medicine. The affairs of each academy, including all superior and secondary institutions of the district properly subordinate to the minister of public instruction, are managed by an academic council.
Under the empire this consisted of the rector as president, the academy inspectors (one for each department in the academic district, except in Paris, where there were eight), the heads of faculties, known as deans, and seven additional members appointed triennially by the minister, and including an archbishop or bishop of the district, two ministers of the Catholic, Protestant, or Jewish church, two magisterial officers, and two public functionaries or other notable persons of the district. The degrees conferred by all the faculties are those of bachelor, licentiate, and doctor. Besides the academies, there are numerous institutions of great excellence in France for advanced education, among which may be mentioned the college de France in Paris; the ecole des chartes; the museum of natural history; the school of living oriental languages, with chairs of learned Arabic, vulgar Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Armenian, modern Greek, Hindostanee, modern Chinese, Malay and Javanese, Algerian Arabic, Thibetan, and Japanese; the school of Athens, etc. All these institutions, with the chief public libraries of Paris, are under the supervision of the minister of public instruction. In like manner the special schools are under the supervision of the different ministries.
Thus the minister of war has the supervision of the polytechnic school, the military school of Saint Cyr, and the cavalry school of Saumur; the minister of marine, of the naval school and the schools of hydrography; the minister of finance, of the school of woodcraft (ecole forestiere); the minister of the household, of the school of fine arts; the minister of agriculture, commerce, and public works, of the schools of agriculture, veterinary science, arts and trades, arts and manufactures, commerce, mines and miners, etc. Applicants for the position of teacher in any of the public schools of France must prove their qualifications by rigid examinations regulated by the government. The educational system of France has recently undergone some changes, and is now in a transitional state. In 1871 Jules Simon, minister of public instruction, brought before the assembly a new school law which had been approved by the council of ministers. It made attendance upon the schools obligatory, and provided for the disfranchisement after 18S0 of those electors who have not attended school, or cannot read or write. Rules were laid down for the inspection of schools and the employment of teachers.
The expenses for elementary education were, in the first place, to be met by the municipalities and the departments, and aid to be granted by the general government only in extraordinary cases. In every department a teachers1 seminary for males and females was to be established, supported by the government. Jules Simon having been succeeded by M. Bat-bie, these reforms have not been realized. - The English system of public instruction has until recently, as before mentioned, been remarkable for its complete independence of the government and want of national organization. While in Germany the organization and entire control of all schools for general instruction is assumed by the government, and in the United States all the common schools are supported and controlled by the people under the supervision of the state, and open to all classes without charge for tuition, in England these important interests have been left to individuals and corporations. Except the pauper schools and those belonging to naval, military, and penal establishments, no schools have been organized by the government, nor has their management been vested in the government. It has, however, made conditional grants in aid of popular education.
These grants were of two kinds : 1, to aid in establishing schools; 2, annual grants conditional upon the attendance and proficiency of the scholars, the qualifications of the teachers, and the state of the schools. All schools receiving grants were subject to yearly examination by government inspectors. In 1870 a new school system was established by the government, which, though far from being complete, was an important improvement upon the existing one, and may lead to a comprehensive system of national instruction. This measure provides for the annual grant by parliament of a sum of money to secure the establishment and maintenance, in every school district, of public schools sufficient for the elementary instruction of all the children resident therein whose education is not otherwise provided for. This fund is administered by the department of education, at the head of which is the lord president of the council on education. Two classes of schools come within the provisions of the act: 1, elementary schools, which comprise those where the principal part of the instruction is elementary, and not including any school or department where the tuition exceeds ninepence a week; 2, training schools to qualify teachers for the elementary schools.
The grant is given annually to managers of schools, and is intended to aid voluntary local action in the establishment of new schools and the maintenance of existing ones. It is made only on certain conditions, the chief of which are that no child shall be refused admission except on reasonable grounds; sectarian religious exercises shall not be required of any pupil; certificated teachers must be employed except in the evening schools; and the schools must be open to the government inspectors. School boards, composed of not less than 5 nor more than 15 members, intrusted with seeing that the provisions of the law are complied with, are elected in boroughs by the burgesses, and in parishes not within the metropolis by the rate payers. They are permitted to enforce the attendance of children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. Special provision is made for the election of school boards in London. All school expenses are paid out of the school fund, which consists of fees, parliamentary grants, loans, etc. All children whose parents are unable to pay for their education shall be admitted free to these elementary schools.
Under the new law, schools which have met not less than 400 times in the morning and afternoon during the year may claim 6s. per student, according to the average number in attendance throughout the year; for every scholar present on the day of examination who has attended not less than 150 morning and afternoon meetings, if above 4 and under 7 years of age, 8s.; or 10s., if the infants are taught in a separate department; if more than 7 years of age, 12s., subject to passing an examination in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The managers of evening schools which have met not less than 80 times during the year may claim 4s. per student, according to the average number in attendance throughout the year, and 7s. 6d. for each one who has attended not less than 50 evening sessions, subject to a successful examination in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Provision is made for the individual examination of students upon certain standards clearly defined for each grade of schools. The parliamentary grant to popular education in Great Britain was £1,093,624 in 1871, and £1,551,500 in 1872. The importance of training schools for teachers is recognized in the new school law, and government aid is extended to this class of institutions on the same conditions as to the public elementary schools.
Provision is also made for training and employing "pupil teachers." A training school includes a college for boarding, lodging, and instructing candidates for teachers in the elementary schools, and a practising department to afford training in the art of teaching. Admission is by competitive examination open to all who intend to adopt teaching as a profession, and have either served the apprenticeship of pupil-teachers or are over 18 years of age. The course of study is two years. To obtain certificates teachers must be examined and must undergo probation by actual service. It will be noticed that the above described supervision by the government applies only to the lower grade of schools in England and Wales, and only to such as choose to comply with the conditions laid down. Higher instruction is afforded by the great body of endowed schools, including grammar schools and colleges, and by the universities. In the former, which are the middle schools of England, students are ■fitted for the universities. They are attended largely by the wealthier classes; and the studies are chiefly classical.
In England there are the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and London; there are four in Scotland, and two in Ireland. The most famous of these are Oxford and Cambridge, which have been richly endowed by the government and by individuals. Both are corporations comprising numerous colleges (Oxford 24, Cambridge 17), each college being a distinct organization with its own governing body. Instruction is administered by tutors, and examinations are held for degrees. In 1869 a bill was passed bringing all the educational endowments of England under the supervision of the department of education. The educational interests of Ireland are under the supervision of a board of commissioners for national education; but there is no educational division of the country, and no public tax for school purposes. Parliamentary grants are made in aid of popular education on certain conditions, and a vigorous system of inspection by government commissioners prevails. The parliamentary grants for popular education amounted in 1872 to £430,390. - The Swedish system embraces the usual classes of schools.
A folk skola, or school for the common people, is required to be maintained in each sochen or parish, of which there are more than 2,000. Instruction is gratuitous, the schools being supported by direct government grants and local taxation. Children between the ages of 9 and 15, who are not otherwise receiving instruction, must attend these schools, under penalty of separation from their parents; but this is seldom enforced. A prominent feature in the management of these schools is the power vested in the clergy. Educational matters in a parish are controlled by the church meeting (kyrho-stamma), which is presided over by the pastor and composed of tax-paying parishioners who belong to the established church. Inspectors are appointed by the ecclesiastical department, on the recommendation of the bishop of the diocese in which they are to act. In the selection of teachers special regard is paid to their religious sentiments. Where fixed schools are impracticable, "ambulatory" schools have been provided for, whose teachers travel from one farm to another, instructing the children of the peasants. In the folk schools prominence is given to religious instruction (Biblical history and the catechism), drawing, singing, military exercises, and gymnastics.
There are 10 higher folk schools designed to afford a somewhat more advanced course of study to children of the common classes. The studies are proposed by the parents and teachers, and determined by the bishop and rector. The state annually appropriates 1,000 rix dollars ($265) for each school. Tuition is gratuitous. Between the folk school and the university are the higher elementary, the lower elementary, the pedagogical schools, and the normal schools. There are 31 schools for higher elementary instruction, one or more being established in every stift or diocese, sustained by appropriations out of the state treasury. These institutions afford complete preparation for the university, corresponding to the gymnasia of Germany and the grammar schools of England. There are two courses of study, the classical and the practical, and seven annual classes. The power of appointing all the teachers of these schools is virtually with the bishops. Each school has a principal called the rector, who is assisted by about five lecturers or teachers, who must at least have had the degree of master of arts before appointment; there are also from seven to fifteen assistants, who must be graduates of the university, besides three or more teachers of music, drawing, military tactics, and gymnastics.
Each school has an inspector who is appointed by the bishop. The usual fee paid by each pupil is about 10 rix dollars ($2 60) for the term of eight months. The lower elementary schools differ from those above described chiefly in the number of classes. Each school has an inspector, a rector, and from one to five assistant teachers, all appointed by the bishop. A small tuition fee is paid. The pedagogical schools are inferior to the lower elementary. These are in the smaller towns, are exclusively for boys, and are supported by appropriations out of the state treasury. There are nine normal schools, seven for males and two for females. Instruction is gratuitous; the course is three years. To each is attached a school for practising the art of teaching. The private schools of Sweden are under the same inspection that the government requires for elementary schools. With the exception of one seminary and two normal schools for the training of female teachers, no provision exists for the instruction of girls beyond what is afforded in the folk schools. Sweden has two ancient and famous universities: that of Upsal, with 100 professors and tutors and about 1,500 students, and that of Lund, with 75 professors and tutors and about 500 students.
In the former the course of study varies from three to six years, the faculties being the same as in the German universities. All public lectures are free. The other educational institutions of Sweden embrace folk high schools for the instruction of children and adults in business, politics, and the duties of life; an institution for the deaf, dumb, and blind in Stockholm; agricultural institutes and schools, which receive some aid from the government, but are principally selfsustaining; an institute and schools for instruction in maintaining and stocking forests; industrial and trade schools; schools for drawing and designing; navigation schools, and an institute for ship building. The government grants aid to numerous scientific and art academies, a medical school, two veterinary institutes, a military, and a naval school. - Since 1814, when Norway regained its independence, the system of education has received careful attention, and the various reforms in it attest the democratic spirit which pervades the Norwegian institutions and constitutes their strength. Its educational institutions may be divided into five classes: 1, common schools; 2, grammar and high schools; 3, Latin schools, and combined Latin and high schools; 4, the university; 5, schools for special branches.
The first class comprise common schools in the country and those in towns. The former include "lower schools," in which children belonging to a circle of the district receive instruction either voluntary or compulsory, and "higher schools," comprehending several circles or districts, in which the children receive a more complete education. The law requires that wherever there are 30 children, legally bound to attend school, living so near each other as to be able to attend the same school daily, a common school shall be established. In districts where a small population is scattered over a surface of several miles, " ambulatory schools" have been established. Where even these are impracticable, the law requires that instruction shall be provided in some other manner. The school committee is empowered to establish schools for children under the school age, which may be conducted by female teachers, and also sewing schools and other industrial schools. Manufactories and other industrial establishments are obliged to provide a school for the children of their workmen. The establishment of lower common schools is obligatory on the school districts, but that of the higher schools is optional. It is provided that there shall be at least one common school in every town.
The branches of instruction in these are almost the same as in the rural schools, and embrace reading, knowledge of the Christian religion, selected parts of the reading book (which is published by the government and is the same in all these schools), chiefly such as relate to history, geography, and knowledge of nature, singing, writing, arithmetic, gymnastics, and military exercises. Attendance on the common schools 12 weeks annually is obligatory for all children living in the country, from the 8th year (in the towns from the 7th year) till the time of their confirmation, unless otherwise instructed, under penalty of fine and separation from their parents. The school committee, however, may allow the child to leave school at the age of 13, if sufficiently advanced in instruction. Once a year a public examination of the pupils in the common schools is held, in the presence of the pastor and other members of the school committee. All children above nine years of age who are bound to attend school must take part in it, even those receiving private instruction corresponding to that of the common schools. As a rule the primary instruction is free. Each municipal district forms a school district, and has a school fund common to the several circles into which a district may be divided.
The municipal council grants the money in all school matters, determines the amount of school expenditures, and apportions the school tax, which is sometimes distributed among all the families of the district, but generally assessed on the residents in proportion to their fortune. All the school districts belonging to the same province form together a higher school district and have a common fund. A normal school has been established by the government in each of the six dioceses. They are under the supervision of the government, and their teachers are appointed by the king. Connected with each normal school is a children's school to exercise the normal pupils as teachers. In addition to these, there are smaller institutes for teachers, either as parallel classes of a higher common school, or as a higher class of a public common school. The so-called higher or civic schools differ chiefly from the best arranged common schools in the addition of modern foreign languages, and in giving a fuller instruction in other branches. Some of these schools also prepare pupils for the university. They are supported by the municipalities, or at least guaranteed by the towns in case the pupils pay for their tuition.
Most of them are exclusively for boys, some for both boys and girls, and two are exclusively for girls. Many of these schools are under the inspection of the superintendents of the diocese, and some are supported by the educational fund, which now amounts to more than 3,000,000 specie dollars ($3,335,000). This fund owes its origin to the sale of large estates formerly bequeathed to the clergy and churches. The Latin schools and combined Latin and high civic schools are in the principal towns and belong to the state. They afford a higher general education, intended to prepare students by classical studies for the university, or by the study of natural sciences for practical life. The greater part of these schools are partly supported by contributions from the state and the town. The pupils pay for tuition in all of them. Until quite recently particular attention has been paid to the study of the classics, but public opinion has compelled a reduction in those studies and a proportionate increase in the study of modern languages and natural science; and the old Norse tongue and English have been made obligatory studies.
The highest instruction is afforded by the university in Christiania, which has the five faculties of theology, law, medicine, history and philosophy, and mathematics and natural science, with about 50 professors and 1,000 students. The lectures are gratuitous, and the students are not bound to any fixed term of study. The special educational establishments of Norway comprise asylums for very small children in the towns and Sunday schools (for secular instruction), which are chiefly supported through private liberality; the peasants' high schools, copied from the Danish system; agricultural schools in most of the provinces, supported by the state and the various districts; nautical schools established by the government in the towns along the coast to educate captains for the commercial marine; a military college for the training of army officers, a naval school, a military high school for the education of engineers and artillery officers, and a school for engineers recently founded by the government. - In Denmark popular education has been provided for and fostered by the government for more than 300 years. The general control of this interest is vested in a minister of public instruction and subordinate superintendents for the several departments of the kingdom.
Each parish is obliged to furnish good primary-school buildings, with teachers for the instruction of children in reading, writing, arithmetic, the Lutheran catechism, grammar, history, and geography. There are normal schools for the training of teachers, which add to these primary branches studies in mathematics, the natural sciences, the art of teaching, gymnastics, drawing, and music. About six years are devoted to secondary instruction, the studies being similar to those of the German gymnasium. In the four lower classes choice of studies is given to students; in the two higher the instruction is divided into two coordinate divisions, one devoted to philological and historical studies, and the other to mathematics and natural science. Old Norse, Danish, French, English, and history are taught in both divisions. More than 70 farmers1 high schools (Folkehoiskoler) have been founded for the purpose of elevating the standard of education among the rural population and making them acquainted with the national history and literature. They are supported by private means, aided by the government. These schools have also been introduced into Sweden and Norway, where they have attracted much attention.
Superior education is afforded by the university of Copenhagen, founded in 1478, which has faculties of theology, law and political science, medicine, philosophy, and mathematics and natural science. Instruction is given to more than 1,000 students by about 80 professors and docents. - In the Netherlands the plan of education is threefold: primary, embracing the elementary schools of various grades, normal schools, evening schools, etc.; secondary, including the burgher schools, agricultural, polytechnic, and navigation schools, institutions for deaf mutes and blind, schools for nurses, and schools of veterinary surgery; superior, comprising the universities, athenaeums, Latin schools, and gymnasia. There are also schools and academies for the army and navy, prison schools, and infant schools. Educational matters are under the control of the minister of the interior. The 11 provinces are divided into 89 school districts, and these into communes, in each of which there must be a primary school under the charge of a local board; and each commune of 3,000 persons has a. school commission. For each district there is an overseer, who is chairman of all the commissions within his jurisdiction.
At the head of the districts of each province is a provincial inspector, salaried by the state, whose duty it is to superintend all the schools in his province, receive the reports of district overseers, and once a year to sit in the council of provincial inspectors under the presidency of the minister for the consideration of the general interests of primary schools throughout the kingdom. Each commune must support a sufficient number of primary schools, or, if it is unable, the province and the state must share equally the expense. Primary schools must be open throughout the year, excepting on holidays. Attendance is not obligatory, but parents are denied aid from charitable institutions if their children have not been instructed in the elements of a popular education. An educational society has been formed, with branches all over the country, whose object is to use all moral means possible to induce parents to send their children to school. It also aims to secure the enactment of a law prohibiting the employment in factories of children below the age of 12. A regular school fee is generally paid in the private and public day schools, but in the case of poor parents an exception is made. About one half of the children attending schools are instructed free.
Numerous schools for adults are maintained. There are both public and private normal schools and normal classes. There are three government normal schools; the course of instruction occupies four years, with from 39 to 44 hours a week. In all the provinces of the Netherlands there is a large number of evening schools, kept partly for the benefit of pupils of the day schools who wish more extended opportunities for study, and partly for the benefit of young persons employed in stores and factories. The plan of instruction in the higher burgher schools embraces the following studies: natural philosophy, chemistry, natural history, mathematics, the Dutch, French, English, German, and Italian languages, political economy and statistics, bookkeeping, commercial law, knowledge of goods, commercial arithmetic and weights and measures, general history and history of commerce, general and commercial geography, constitution and laws of the Netherlands, history, geography, etc, of India, penmanship, and free-hand drawing.
Among the other institutions for secondary instruction are two, one government at Leyden and one municipal at Delft, for the preparation of civil officers for Dutch India, affording instruction in the Javan and Malay languages, Mohammedan law, the institutions, religions, geography, history, ethnology, and statistics* of Dutch India. Holland is rich in educational institutions for the army and navy. Provision is also made for instruction to the inmates of prisons; and there are special schools for the instruction of children between the ages of 4 and 6. Superior instruction is provided for by three universities, Utrecht, Leyden, and Groningen; two athenaeums, Amsterdam and Deventer; and 55 gymnasia and Latin schools. The universities have five faculties each: theology, law, medicine, mathematics and natural sciences, and literature. The athenaeums have the same faculties and the same course of instruction as the universities; the only difference between them is that the athenaeum is not a government but a municipal institution, though under government supervision.
The gymnasia and Latin schools afford a classical and mathematical education to students preparing for the universities and professional schools. - The Swiss system of popular education bears a general resemblance to that of the United States. There is, in fact, no national system, but each canton has its own system complete. The administration of educational affairs rests primarily in the cantonal minister of public instruction, aided by a board of three or more members elected from the communes or sections, which are the only school divisions known to the canton. The gradation of the schools and plan of inspection are essentially German. The communal inspectors report to the cantonal, and these to the minister, whatever relates to the fulfilment or evasion of the law and the general condition of the schools. Attendance is obligatory in all but four of the cantons, unless it be shown that children are receiving equally good instruction in private schools or at home; and even then, such children must undergo examinations. In some of the cantons the prescribed school age is from 7 to 14, in Others from 6 to 16. The schools are maintained by taxation.
Gymnastic and military exercises form a prominent feature, and to provide competent teachers young men are sent by the government to receive instruction in the great gymnastic establishment in Dresden. There are three Swiss universities, situated at Basel, Bern, and Zurich. These are cantonal rather than national, and are organized after the general plan of the German university, but are of inferior rank. - In Italy all matters pertaining to education are under the control of the ministry of public instruction, which has six divisions or bureaus. The first is the financial bureau, through which the payments to all the institutions dependent on the ministry are made; the second has the administration, and gathers the statistics of all the institutions for the fine arts and antiquities, the musical institutions, the libraries, archives, the scientific and literary academies; the third has the superior instruction, universities, schools for engineers, schools for veterinary surgery, and astronomical observatories; the fourth the institutions for secondary instruction; the fifth the institutions for primary instruction; and the sixth is the auditor's office, through which also all communications to and from the royal court of accounts are transmitted.
Elementary education in Italy has been very backward, but the whole system of public instruction is now undergoing a thorough reorganization. The new school law provides for elementary instruction to be given everywhere free of charge, for obligatory attendance upon the schools under penalty of fine, and that no one shall be appointed to any state, provincial, or communal office who cannot read and write. - In China, more than in any other country, with perhaps the exception of Prussia, a learned education is the means of official promotion. Instruction begins in the family, where the boys are taught to enumerate objects, to count to the number of 10,000, and to reverence their parents and ancestors by a minute ceremonial. At the age of 5 or 6 they are sent to school. For the sons of the nobles a higher course of instruction is provided in universities under the surveillance of the state. One of these exists in most of the large cities, and the most advanced of them is the imperial college in Peking. Candidates for admission into this institution are required to pass a strict examination, and the graduates from it are at once appointed to public office.
The education of girls is neglected, but the daughters of the wealthy are generally taught to read, write, sing, and sometimes to make verses. For a more complete account of education in this country, see China. - The new school law of Japan, when carried out, will secure a thorough system of education for that country. According to its provisions, the management of educational affairs throughout the country is vested in one central authority, the department of education. For educational purposes the empire will be divided into eight grand divisions, called collegiate, which will be subdivided into 256 academical districts, each to contain a middle or high school, and these again into 53,760 school districts, with one school each. There shall be appointed in every academical district by the local authorities from 10 to 13 directors, each to control from 20 to 30 schools. Every child of all classes must be sent to school from the age of 6 years, and continue long enough at least to finish the elementary course. There are to be three classes of schools: great learning (superior), middle learning (secondary), and small learning (elementary). The different grades of elementary schools embrace common, girls', village, charity, private, infant, and evening schools, and schools for imbeciles.
The common (public) schools will have two grades; in the lower will be taught spelling, writing, conversation, vocabularies, reading, morality, letter-writing, grammar, arithmetic, lessons on health, outlines of geography and of natural history, and gymnastic exercises; in the upper, the outlines of history, geometry, trigonometry, botany, chemistry, and physiology. One or two foreign languages, bookkeeping, drawing, and political economy may also be taught. The lower grade is for children between 6 and 9 years of age, and the upper for those between 10 and 13. The secondary schools, or academies, are intended to afford instruction in the ordinary college branches to those between 14 and 18 years of age. In this grade are also agricultural academies, foreign languages for those preparing for commercial pursuits, and industrial academies. The superior schools will afford instruction in the professional branches, logic, literature, law, and medicine. Normal schools will be established to provide teachers for the public schools. Provision is made for sending about 180 students abroad to receive advanced instruction at the expense of the government. In every class of schools a tuition fee must be paid.
The educational funds are under the exclusive control of the department of education. - In the United States the regulation of all matters pertaining to education is left entirely to the states, each of which maintains a system of public instruction independently of the others. These systems differ mainly in details, while the general features are common to all, and give to public instruction in the United States an individuality which distinguishes it from the educational systems of all other countries. In each state instruction is provided by law for all persons of school age, free of all charge for tuition. Attendance is not generally obligatory, but there is a rapidly increasing tendency among educators toward the recognition of the right and duty of the state to educate its entire school population. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Michigan, and Nevada have laws requiring parents to send their children to school during a specified period between certain ages. The public schools are established and controlled entirely by the people through their chosen officers, and are supported chiefly by voluntary taxation, but partly by funds derived from the sale of government lands and from the gifts of individuals.
These schools are entirely independent of any religious organization, and sectarian instruction is carefully avoided; the Bible, however, is generally read in them as a daily exercise. The school system of each state is adopted and all changes therein made by the legislature. The general supervision and control of the educational interests of the state are vested in a board of education or superintendent of public instruction, who are generally elected by the people or appointed by the governor and legislature, and receive a salary. The powers and duties of these officers vary greatly in the different states. The state superintendent generally has his office at the state capital, where he receives reports from the various school districts and local superintendents, showing how many months of the year each school has continued, how many children have attended, what has been the success of the methods employed, and what is the condition of the schools in every district. This information is embodied in an annual report to the governor or legislature, and distributed among the people. The superintendent has also a sort of judicial supervision of all matters pertaining to schools, is appealed to for the construction of the law, and acts generally for the stimulation and advancement of education.
For purposes of local government each state is divided into counties, which are subdivided into towns or townships; a further division of the towns is made into districts of a size suitable for the maintenance of a school. Of these school districts there are 11,350 in the state of New York, and about 167,800 in the United States. In each of them a school is maintained for the accommodation of all the children in the district. In each district officers are chosen by the people who have charge of the school property, employ teachers, provide furniture, fuel, and sometimes books, and have power to levy taxes to meet any expenses that may accrue. In each county there is generally a board of trustees or one or more superintendents or commissioners of public schools chosen by the people to look after their educational interests. Besides these, visitors or inspectors are appointed in each school district or town to inspect the schools and conduct examinations at intervals. By the above mentioned officials all matters pertaining to public instruction are administered, embracing the construction of school houses, the choice of text books and other means for instruction, the examination and appointment of teachers, matters of discipline, the best systems of teaching, and in general whatever may lead to the best results in public instruction.
It will be seen that the general supervision of the system is exercised by the state, while the details are determined by the subordinate districts, thus securing local responsibility under state supervision. In the larger cities special provision is usually made vesting the management of the schools in a board of education and a superintendent of public schools. In cities and the larger towns the public schools are graded into primary, grammar, and high schools. The schools are generally open five or six hours a day and about 40 weeks during the year in the cities, but a much less time on the average in rural districts. The school age varies in different states, ranging from 4 to 21 years. After passing through the primary grade, where the ordinary elementary branches are taught, including frequently vocal music, the pupil enters the grammar school, where, in addition to the ordinary branches, music, French, German, drawing, natural philosophy, and chemistry are taught. The time required to pass through these two grades averages about eight years.
At this point the education of many pupils ceases, while others continue through the high schools, where the course of instruction occupies from three to five years, and embraces generally the ancient and modern languages, the higher mathematics, philosophy, etc. In 1872 statistics were collected by the United States bureau of education showing the extent to which music, drawing, French, and German were taught in the public schools of cities containing 10,000 or more inhabitants. Reports were received from 140 cities, from which it appears that the study of vocal music is almost universal in schools of all grades, but only three cities reported instrumental music as among the branches taught in the public schools. Drawing was taught in all the schools of 47 cities, in the high of 4, in the high and grammar of 12, in the grammar of 3, and in the grammar and lower grades of 24; making 90 cities in which drawing was reported as among the studies. German was reported to be taught in 76 cities, viz.: in all the schools of 15, in the high of 33, in the high and grammar of 20, in the grammar of 4, and in the lower grades of 4. Instruction in French was provided by 73 cities; it was a regular study in all the schools of 2, in the high of 63, in the high and grammar of 7, and in the grammar of 1. In some of the cities, and especially in the rural districts, the same schools are attended by both sexes; but in most of the larger cities, especially in the higher grades of schools, separate schools are maintained for boys and for girls.
In regard to color, in some instances, no distinction is made in the admissions to the public schools, but more generally colored pupils are required to attend schools specially provided for them. In all the schools pupils pass from a lower to a higher grade after an examination, oral and written, in the studies pursued. These examinations are sometimes conducted by the teacher, but more frequently by other school officers, such as the superintendent of schools or a member of the board of visitors. - In nearly every state there is a normal school for the preparation of teachers; in several, three or four; and in New York, eight. The course of instruction usually occupies two, but sometimes three years, upon the completion of which diplomas or certificates are conferred, which are generally accepted as evidence of qualification to teach in the public schools without further examination. In the absence of such certificates, applicants before being chosen as teachers are required to pass an examination conducted by school officers appointed for that purpose. In many states the system of examining teachers is very deficient. In California a great advance has been made in this respect. State and county boards of examination, composed exclusively of professional teachers, have been organized.
The system embraces written examinations and the issue of graded certificates to teach, from life certificates down to limited certificates for temporary teachers. According to the report of the bureau of education for 1872, there were 101 normal schools in the United States, with 773 instructors and 11,778 students. Of these, 48 schools, with 454 instructors and 7,157 students, were supported or aided by states; 2, with 9 instructors and 182 students, by counties; 7, with 72 instructors and 816 students, by cities; 44, with 248 instructors and 3,623 students, are connected with other educational institutions. In 66 of these schools drawing is taught, and 16 have collections of models, casts, apparatus, and examples for free-hand drawing; vocal music is reported as taught in 74, and instrumental music in 51; 45 possess chemical laboratories, 52 philosophical cabinets and apparatus, and 32 have cabinets of natural history. Model schools are connected with 57 normal schools, and 70 confer diplomas and certificates upon students completing the course.
While there has been a steady growth of normal instruction as an element in the educational system of the United States, the present provision is entirely inadequate for the training of the necessary number of teachers, the deficiency being supplied by graduates of other public and private institutions. According to an estimate made by the bureau of education, based on the assumption that teachers do not continue in service on the average more than three years, 120,897 new teachers are annually demanded in the United States, while the normal schools can supply only about 4,000. - Another most important feature of the system of education in the United States is the numerous conventions and associations of teachers and educators held for the discussion of all topics pertaining to education. These organizations are national, state, and county. In many of the states county institutes or teachers' associations are held at frequent intervals during the year, for the purpose of securing a higher degree of efficiency among the teachers by means of lectures and other forms of instruction given by experienced educators, and discussions by teachers themselves.
The state organization of teachers usually meets annually, sometimes oftener, under the direction of the state school officers, for the consideration and advancement of the educational interests of the state. The national educational association is composed of the foremost teachers and educators in every department of learning, and meets annually for the discussion of whatever may tend to promote education in any of its branches in the United States. This body, which held its 13th annual session in 1873, comprises four departments: elementary, normal, superintendence, and higher instruction. Besides this, the American institute of instruction meets annually for similar purposes, and there are other national educational associations. In the United States the plan of the school house is recognized as an important element in the system of education, and much attention is given to secure the best models in regard to light, ventilation, location, and other details affecting the health, comfort, and mental activity of the student. The organization of free evening schools as a part of the system of public instruction is of comparatively recent origin, but the growth in their number and efficiency has been marked.
They are provided chiefly in the large cities and manufacturing districts, and are intended to afford instruction in the ordinary branches to those adults and others who are prevented by employment from attending the day schools. Of the 141 cities having 10,000 or more inhabitants that reported to the bureau of education in 1872, 51 had 218 evening schools, with 1,350 teachers and 60,297 pupils; of 82 cities with a population between 5,000 and 10,000, 7 were reported as having 14 schools of this class, with 20 teachers and 555 students; while of 103 cities having less than 5,000 inhabitants, 7 reported 9 evening schools with 312 pupils. - In addition to the public schools, private schools for all grades and classes of students are extensively encouraged and patronized. In this manner many denominational schools are supported, especially by the Roman Catholics. So far as the state is concerned in the control and support of education, public instruction is generally limited to the common schools, embracing the primary, grammar, and high, including academies; and beyond the last named grade means for education in most instances is dependent upon individual or corporate provision.
Institutions of the highest class, such as universities, colleges, schools of science, etc, are in a few of the states maintained at the public expense; but in most they are supported by income from tuition and by endowments under the direction of private corporations, which are exempted from taxation. Where tuition is charged, the rate is always low. Institutions of this class are everywhere protected and encouraged by favorable laws and charters. No definite line of classification can be drawn separating universities, colleges, academies, and seminaries for advanced instruction. The mode of organization and government, and the system of instruction, are often the same in an academy as in a college or university. Nor is there any standard of requirements to determine whether an institution shall be admitted to either of these classes. Consequently the variety among colleges, for example, as far as concerns the endowment of the institution, the number of instructors and pupils, the extent and thoroughness of instruction, and the general facilities for affording advanced education, may be so great as to suggest no comparison or similarity. Many institutions, therefore, assuming the name of college or university, are insignificant in comparison with the best institutions of that class.
The representative American college is a corporation deriving its charter and powers from the state, and supported by endowment and funds arising from gifts, tuition, etc. Its external administration is vested in a board of overseers or trustees, some of whom are appointed by the state, while it is governed more immediately by a faculty composed of professors and instructors. The chief executive officer is a president, generally chosen by the overseers or trustees. The course of study extends through four years, and embraces the ordinary branches of advanced learning, such as ancient and modern languages, mathematics, the sciences, philosophy, logic, etc. Students are admitted at from 16 to 18 years of age, after examination. In most colleges all the studies are required, while in others the student has a choice of different branches. Instruction is administered by recitations and lectures, chiefly the former. Written and oral examinations are frequent, and annual written examinations are held as a condition of passing from a lower to a higher class, there being four classes in all. Degrees are conferred upon those students who pass a successful written examination which is frequently limited, however, to the studies of the last year of the course.
Discipline and attention to study are secured by a graded system of marks of merit and demerit. Many of these institutions have various funds for indigent and meritorious students, consisting of prizes, loans, scholarships, etc, arising from gifts by individuals. In some cases a student may defray the expenses of his education from these sources. The degree usually conferred at graduation is that of bachelor (A. B.), while the master's degree (A. M.) is conferred three years later, the only condition except at Harvard being the payment of a fee. The degree of bachelor in the various professional and scientific departments is also conferred, while doctor of divinity (D. D.) and doctor of laws (LL. D.) are granted as honorary degrees. In the United States there is no university or university instruction according to the European classification, especially that adopted in Germany. There are, however, more than 100 organizations that assume that title, which may be divided into three general classes: denominational universities, founded and managed by religious sects; non-sectarian, which, though in the main independent, are partly endowed and controlled by the state; and those originally founded and wholly controlled by the state.
Several institutions, however, partake of the university character, such as Harvard and Cornell universities and Yale and Columbia colleges, whose organizations embrace, besides the academic department, professional and technical schools with numerous professorships, libraries, museums, collections, apparatus, etc, for the most advanced instruction. The oldest and most completely developed institution of this class is Harvard university in Cambridge, Mass., which may be taken as a representative of the most advanced instruction afforded in the United States. It embraces an academic department, with a four years' course of study; a divinity school, three years; a law school, two years; a scientific school, with a four years' course in civil and topographical engineering, three years' courses in practical and theoretical chemistry, in natural history, and in mathematics, physics, and astronomy, besides teachers' courses of one year and instruction for advanced students; a school of mining and practical geology, with a four years' course; medical school, three years; an astronomical observatory, with special instruction; a dental school; a school of agriculture and horticulture; a museum of comparative zoology; and the Peabody museum of American archaeology and ethnology. (See Harvard University.) - The United States government exercises no control over public education, and makes no regular provision for its support, except that military instruction is afforded at West Point, N. Y., in a four years' course, and also at the school of artillery, Fortress Monroe, Va., and naval instruction at Annapolis, Md., free of charge.
These institutions are wholly supported and controlled by the general government, and are intended to provide trained officers for the army and navy. Liberal aid, however, has been extended by congress for purposes of education, by various grants of land dating as far back as 1803. The land granted or reserved for common schools and universities amounts to about 68,000,000 acres, in addition to which 7,830,-000 acres were reserved by act of congress passed July 2, 1862, granting to the several states and territories 30,000 acres for each senator and representative in congress, to provide "colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." The organization and management of these institutions are transferred to the respective states on certain conditions. In almost every state the funds thus realized have been added to those of some existing institution in order that better results may be obtained by the concentration of resources; but in such cases the government funds must be devoted to the special studies for which they were intended.
In 1867 an important step, growing out of the numerous inquiries and demands by foreign educators and others for information and statistics concerning education in the United States, was taken by congress in the establishment of a department, now called the bureau of education," for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several states and territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of school systems and methods of teaching as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country." At the head of this bureau is a commissioner who makes an annual report to congress, which is printed for gratuitous popular distribution. This report aims to present full information concerning all the educational institutions in the different states and cities, and all educational forces, such as libraries, museums, newspapers, and periodicals. It also presents a summary of the latest educational information and statistics of all parts of the world, and contains articles on various subjects connected with education.
The bureau also publishes in pamphlet form reports on education in different countries. According to this authority, the total school population of the 34 states and 7 territories reporting in 1872 was 12,828,847, and the enrollment 7,379,656. In 28 states and 4 territories reporting, the average attendance was 4,110,-525. The number not registered in 34 states and 6 territories reporting was 4,608,803. There were attending private schools in 18 states and 5 territories 364,283. The number of teachers reported in 33 states and 7 territories was 217,239. The total income in all the states and territories from which it is reported was $72,630,269, of which $55,889,790 were from taxation; total expenditure for educational purposes, $70,891,981. In 31 states having a permanent school fund the total amount was reported at $65,850,572. Of 326 cities in the United States, 295 reported their school population at 2,123,889; in 318, the enrollment was 1,215,897; in 298, the average attendance was 787,860; in 292, the number of schools is reported at 7,917; and in 315, the number of teachers at 23,194. The following summary of educational institutions in the United States is reported by the bureau of education for 1872:
Institutions for superior instruction of females........................
Schools of science endowed by national grant of lands...............
Schools of science (including collegiate departments) not so endowed..
Medical schools, regular.............
" " eclectic.............
" " homoeopathic......
Institutions for the blind............
" " deaf mutes..........
From the United States census for 1870 it appears that of the 17,389,784 persons between 5 and 24 years of age inclusive, 7,209,938, or more than one third, were receiving instruction. As the number over 21 under instruction must be very limited, nearly one half of the population between 5 and 20 years of age, inclusive (14,507,658), are reported to be in institutions of learning. The total number of instructors was 221,042, of whom 93,329 were males and 127,713 females. The total wealth of the country was $30,068,518,507; the total income of schools, which may also be taken as the total expenditure, was $95,402,726. Of this amount $3,663,785 was from endowment, $61,746,039 from taxation and public funds, and $29,992,-902 from other sources, including tuition. In the United States more than 17 per cent. of the adult males and 23 per cent. of the adult females are illiterate. In a total population of 38,-558,371, 4,528,084 persons 10 years of age and over could not read, and 5,658,144, 10 years of ago and over were unable to write, including 777,873 of foreign birth and 2,789,689 colored.
It will thus be seen that a large portion of the illiteracy is due to those who prior to the civil war were slaves, a fact which is further illustrated by a map published by the census to show the distribution of illiteracy by states. The following statement of illiteracy has been compiled by the bureau of education from the census of 1870:
* Unclassified, 6,694; preparatory, 19,476; collegiate, 19,249.
Total population, 10 years old and over...........
Illiterate population, 10 years old and over....
Male population, 10 years old and over............
Illiterate males, 10 years old and over.....
Female propulation, 10 years old and over...
Illiterate females, 10 years old and over....
Percentage of total illiterates to total population of same age.....
Percentage of male illiterates to male population of same age..
Percentage of female illiterates to female population of same age....
Total population in 1870, 10-21 years old.........
Illiterate population. 10-21 years old.............
Male population, 10-21 years old...
Illetreate males, 10-21 years old...
Female population, 10-21 years old...
Illiterate females, 10-21 years old....
Percentage of illiterates, 10-21 years old, to population of same age...
Percentage of male illiterates to male population, both 10-21 years old...........................
Percentage of female illiterates to female population, both 10-21 years old...
Total male adults, 1870..........................
Male adult illiterates..
Total female adults..
Female adult illiterates....
Percentage of male illiterate adults to total adults.
Percentage of female illiterate adults to total females...............
- Professional Education. The system of professional education in the United States, so far as there is any system, is greatly inferior to that of continental Europe. There instruction in medicine, law, and theology is usually provided by faculties of the university, and is consequently regulated by the government. The conditions of admission and graduation are such as to secure thorough training. In the United States professional schools sometimes form departments of colleges, but are frequently independent of other educational institutions, and usually of the government. The courses of study are shorter and less thorough than in Europe, while the requirements for admission and graduation are far less. The requisites for admission to American medical schools, where any exist, can generally be met by the preparation received in a common school or academy.
The usual course of study is three years, in which are included at least two courses of lectures, when the student receives the degree of M. D. In Italy the applicant for admission to the medical school must have completed the studies of the lyceum - Greek, Latin, and Italian literature, history and geography, philosophy, chemistry, mathematics, natural history, mechanics, and gymnastics. The term of study is six years. In France the standard of admission is even higher; and to obtain the degree of doctor, which alone secures the privilege of full practice in medicine and surgery anywhere in France, the student must have completed a four years1 course in one of the great faculties, or the courses in an ecole pre-paratoire for three and a half years, and at least one annual course in a faculty of medicine; spent two years in a hospital near the faculty or preparatory school; and undergone three annual examinations and five on the completion of his studies, besides preparing a satisfactory thesis. The schools for educating physicians and surgeons for the army and navy are under the direct management of the government.
In Austria a certificate of the gymnasium is essential for admission to the medical schools; and a four years' course of study, confined almost exclusively to strictly professional branches, is requisite for admission to the final examinations which all candidates for the doctorate must pass. The course of study in the medicinisch-chirurgische Facultat of the royal university in Vienna, the greatest school of medicine in Austria, and in some respects the greatest in Europe, comprises 10 semi-annual courses, in each of which nearly 100 courses of lectures and practical exercises, comprising not less than 9,000 lessons of one hour each in every branch of medicine and nearly every disease within the range of medical practice, are given by 35 full professors, 19 assistant professors, and 39 Privatdocenten. The collections, museums, libraries, laboratories, botanical gardens, etc, constitute an array of material aids no less remarkable; while the general hospital, with its numerous divisions for all the important classes of disease, its thousands of beds, and superior facilities for a dozen or more distinct clinics on a large scale, surpasses all others in the world.
The Prussian system of medical education is similar to that of Austria. In Great Britain admission to the medical schools is preceded by a thorough examination. The course of instruction is four years, two of which must have been spent in attending the medical and surgical practice of a general hospital having not less than 80 patients. - In the Italian universities a student is required to study law for five years in order to obtain the degree of doctor, and as a condition of admission he must possess the certificato di licenza (equivalent to an American A. B.), and pass an oral and written examination in Italian and Latin literature, ancient and modern history, and moral philosophy. There are 21 faculties of giurisprudenza, with an average of 15 full professors, and in some cases honorary and extraordinary professors. There are also special courses in many of the faculties. At the conclusion of the first three years of study the degree of bachelor in law is conferred; at the end of the fourth year, the degree of licentiate; and at the end of the fifth, the diploma of doctor. In France there are 11 faculties of law, with 98 chairs. As in Italy, legal instruction is under control of the state, and the degrees and the general regulations governing admission are the same in both countries.
No person in France is admitted to the courses prescribed for any degree unless a graduate in the arts. No one can practise as a barrister (avocat) without the degree of licentiate of law, or as a solicitor (aroue) without the certi-ficat de capacite en droit. To obtain the degree of bachelor, which entitles the holder merely to practise as a solicitor, the candidate must complete the courses of the first two years and undergo examinations in the Institutes of Justinian and the Code Napoleon, the penal code, and the codes of civil procedure and of criminal instruction. The degree of licentiate is conferred only upon those who have received the degree of bachelor, have completed the third year's course of study in a faculty of law, and have passed examinations in the Code Napoleon and the codes of commerce and of administrative law, besides defending a thesis on questions of Roman and French law. To obtain the degree of doctor in law it is necessary to be a licentiate, to complete the four years' course of study, and to pass two examinations on Roman, French, and international law.
For those who design to practise in a subordinate capacity, as mere solicitors, notaries public, etc, a certificat de capacite en droit is granted at the end of one year's study, embracing the first and second years' courses in the Code Napoleon and the codes of civil and criminal procedure. In the German empire law is taught in the universities, which have 30 faculties of law and about 300 professors. The degree of doctor is the only one conferred; the term of study is four years. The Maturitatszeugniss (corresponding to the American A. B.) granted by the gymnasia is requisite for admission. In the Scandinavian states the law schools are not numerous or provided with large corps of instructors. The gradation of studies and the degrees conferred resemble those of the French and Italian, rather than the German schools. Instruction is given by lectures, and examinations are frequent. The Anglo-Saxon schools of law, both in Great Britain and the United States, are regarded as vastly inferior to those of the continent. There are law departments in most of the British universities, which confer degrees only upon those who have a general knowledge of language, literature, and philosophy. In the United States law schools are generally departments of colleges or universities.
The professors number from one to five, and are often judges of the court or practising lawyers. The course of study is usually two years, on the completion of which the degree of bachelor (LL. B.) is conferred almost as a matter of course, the final examination in many cases being merely nominal, or not required at all. Usually no educational or professional requirements for admission exist. In some instances this degree entitles the holder to practise in all the courts of the state; and even without the diploma of any law school, a person may be admitted to the bar upon examination, which is frequently very limited, in certain legal studies. - In Europe the system of ecclesiastical education comprises the two general divisions Protestant and Catholic, while in the United States there are almost as many kinds of theological schools as there are sects. The continental faculties of theology represent the one or the other of those two branches of the Christian church. In Italy, Austria, Bavaria, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal, they are Catholic; in the North German states, in Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia, they are Protestant; while in France they are divided.
In the United States, where there is no connection between church and state, each denomination guards its own theological interests by the establishment of such schools as may be required. Accordingly the 108 theological schools, with 435 professors and 3,351 students in 1872, were distributed among 19 sects. The multiplication of sectarian theological schools is also a feature of ecclesiastical education in Great Britain, but not so extended as in the United States. This department of education in France is provided for by 7 faculties with 42 professors; Italy, 8 faculties and 64 professors; Prussia, 12 faculties and 112 professors; Austria, 4 faculties and 38 professors; the Netherlands, 3 faculties and 14 professors; Denmark and Norway, each 1 faculty and 5 professors; Sweden, 2 faculties and 8 professors; and Great Britain, 8 faculties and 34 professors. In regard to the subjects taught and the qualifications for admission, there seems to be a nearer accordance among the different nations than in either medicine or law.
In Europe the degree of A. B. or the certificate of maturity from the gymnasium is necessary to admission; in the United States the qualifications for admission in some cases are nearly the same, though in most of the theological seminaries little more than a common school education is really required. In France five professorships are regarded as essential (there are sometimes seven), and the term of study is three years; the Italian schools have eight full professors and a course of five years. In Germany the term of study is shorter, being four years in Austria and three in Prussia and most of the other states. The number of full professors is often 10 or 12, besides numerous extraordinary professors and Privatdocenten who deliver courses of lectures. In Great Britain and the United States the course of study averages three years, and the number of professors is generally about four. The degrees conferred in European countries are those of bachelor, licentiate, and doctor in theology. In Great Britain and the United States only the bachelor's degree (B. D.) is conferred, except that the degree of doctor (D. D. or S. T. D.) is conferred honorarily.
Very few of the American seminaries confer any degree in course. - The educational system of Europe embraces special schools devoted to almost every branch of science, art, and industry, viz.: science and art, arts and trades, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary surgery, mines, engineering, architecture, commerce and navigation, science and art of war, painting, sculpture, drawing, music, etc. In each of these departments special schools are organized with regular courses of study and well defined requisites as to admission and graduation. The extent and variety of schools devoted to special education in Germany are shown by the statement that in 1873 there were in the German empire 140 schools of agriculture, horticulture, etc, 34 of commerce, 27 of navigation, 18 of mining, 17 of forestry, 9 of veterinary surgery, 5 of surgery, 31 of architecture, 17 of music, 6 normal schools of gymnastics, 35 military schools, and 114 technical schools. In the United States many of these schools either do not exist at all, or have a very imperfect organization. In Great Britain and some continental countries schools are maintained for instruction and practical training in some branch of art, trade, or manufacture.
The schools of chemistry usually have a two years' course and from six to twelve professors. In the United States there is no distinctive school of this class, but extended courses of instruction in chemistry are given in numerous schools connected with colleges and universities. Schools specially designed to give instruction in the applications of science to agriculture were founded in Prussia, Switzerland, and Austria as early as 1799, and they have since become general throughout Europe. The royal agricultural school of Hungary at Altenburg has nine professors and a two years' course. The applicant for admission must have completed the course of study embraced in the first seven classes of a gymnasium or the first five of a realschule. - The Russian agricultural schools rank among the best in Europe. The Petrovskoi agricultural and forestry academy near Moscow, established in 1865, has a faculty of agriculture and one of forestry, with 18 professors, and a farm of 1,200 acres. The course of study occupies three years in each faculty, and embraces the following general departments: agriculture, zootechny, veterinary science and art, rural constructions, civil engineering, sylviculture, agriculture and forest technology, and rural and political economy.
The academy confers the degrees of bachelor and master, which are obtained only on examination. As early as 1837 the importance of creating state colleges of • agriculture in the United States was urged by prominent agriculturists; but no institution of this kind was established till 1857, when the state agricultural college of Michigan was opened with seven professors and a farm of G76 acres. Similar institutions were soon organized by other states, and in 1802 congress passed an act providing for the establishment of colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts in all of the states and territories, endowing them with about 8,000,000 acres of the public lands. Nearly all of the states have taken steps to organize institutions pursuant to this act, and in several of the states the institutions are in successful operation. - Numerous schools of mines of a high order are maintained in France, Saxony, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, Russia, and other European countries. The course of instruction is from three to four years, although in the imperial school of mines in St. Petersburg, which has 30 professors, it extends through eight years.
In the United States schools of mining are of recent origin, and are connected with other institutions, as for example that connected with the Massachusetts institute of technology, the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard university, the Sheffield scientific school of Yale college, the mining school of Columbia college in New York, etc. The term of study varies from two to three and four years, on the completion of which the degree of mining engineer is conferred. - Schools of commerce of a high grade are maintained in most European countries, both separate and in connection with other institutions. Owing to the high character of this branch of education in France, commerce might be almost regarded as a profession. In the United States commercial training is afforded only by the business colleges established and maintained by private enterprise. - Perhaps the most extensive and magnificent institutions in Europe devoted to special education are the polytechnic schools, which are found in most of the continental countries. In the front rank of this class is the polytechnic school at Carlsruhe, Baden, which has upward of 50 instructors and more than 500 students. The main object of the institution is to educate engineers, machinists, architects, chemists, foresters, and agriculturists.
It is divided into : 1, the mathematical school, with a course of two years; 2, the school for engineers, course two years and a half; 3, the school for machine builders, course three years; 4, the school of architecture, course four years; 5, the school of chemistry; 0, the school of forestry, with three different courses; 7, the school of agriculture, with a course of two and a half years. The standard of admission is very high, and the instruction is thorough. The system of polytechnic schools has been less developed in Great Britain than on the continent, but ample instruction of this kind is afforded in the former country by numerous schools of the arts and academies of design, mechanics' institutes and museums with courses of lectures on various branches of applied science, and universities for the working classes, such as the Andersonian university in Glasgow, in which working men and others have the advantage of regular courses of lectures on the sciences. In the United States, the chief polytechnic schools, at least those distinctively so called, are the Massachusetts school of technology in Boston, the Rensselaer polytechnic institute in Troy, N. Y., the polytechnic college of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, and the Stevens institute of technology, in Hoboken, N. J. The first named institution, founded in 1862, comprises: 1, a school of industrial science; 2, a museum of arts; 3, a society of arts.
The course of study is four years. Candidates for admission must have attained the age of 16 years and pass an examination in the branches ordinarily taught in a high school or academy. The objects of the institute are: 1, to provide a full course of scientific studies and practical exercises for students seeking to qualify themselves for the professions of the mechanical engineer, civil engineer, practical chemist, engineer of mines, and builder and architect; 2, to furnish a general education founded upon the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences, English and other modern languages, and mental and political science; 3, to provide courses of evening instruction in the main branches of knowledge above referred to for persons of either sex. Instruction of this kind is provided for in other institutions, and will constitute a feature in the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts endowed by the national grant. - Prominent among the excellent special schools of various kinds maintained in Europe, which are either not found in the United States or exist only in a very imperfect state, are the schools of forestry, which have contributed largely toward the preservation and better cultivation of forests.
Among the best are those of Austria, which possesses vast public and private forests. The aim. of these schools is to give a thorough theoretical and practical instruction in woodcraft, so as to prepare competent foresters and hunters. Instruction is classified into lower, middle, and superior; the course is from one to three years. The imperial academy of forestry at Mariabrunn is under the immediate administration of the minister of agriculture; it has one director and four professors, and a course of three years. - Until recently there have been in the United States either no opportunities for public instruction in veterinary science, or they have been exceedingly limited. The Massachusetts agricultural college and Cornell university have each a professor of veterinary science; and since 1857 there has been a veterinary college in New York which claims to be the only regular institution of this kind in the country. The United States commissioner of education, John Eaton, estimating the value of all the horses in the United States at $800,000,000, concludes "that the proportion of this amount annually lost for want of skilful medical treatment is not less than $15,000,000." In Europe there are more than 25 well organized veterinary colleges, the best of which are found in Germany. The aim of the imperial school of veterinary surgery in Vienna, which may be taken as an example, is to educate veterinary surgeons for the army and the civil service, to advance the science of veterinary surgery, and to treat sick animals of every kind in its large and well appointed hospital.
Instruction is theoretical and practical, the course lasting three years for students and two years for doctors of medicine and surgery who have taken a university degree. Besides annual examinations a rigorous examination is held at the end of the course, when certificates are given which entitle the graduate to become a veterinary surgeon in the army or in the civil service. A special two years' course of horseshoeing, for private cavalry and artillery soldiers, is connected with the schools. When this is successfully completed, a certificate of "privileged horseshoer" is given. In some other veterinary schools the course of instruction is four years. - Schools of navigation are found in most of the maritime countries of Europe, the object of which is to train mariners and masters of merchant vessels. The school of navigation at Stettin, Prussia, has a director, two professors, and an assistant who teaches drawing. Lessons are given 32 hours a week for three years, the first being a course for pilots, while during the last two the art of navigating the high seas is taught. - Schools for nurses (midwives) are common in Europe, and in some countries no woman is allowed to practise as midwife unless she is provided with their certificate.
Austria has eight of these schools, and instruction of the same kind is also given to women at the faculties of medicine in the universities and at the schools of surgery. The course of instruction occupies four, five, or six months. It is both theoretical and practical, and is given by a professor of obstetrics, aided by a midwife and a nurse. A thorough examination is held at the end of the course. In the Austrian schools for midwives more than 1,200 are instructed every year. The United States are very deficient in means for such education, though a few of the medical colleges have courses of lectures for nurses, and the number of female medical schools is increasing. - Special schools of architecture, although of comparatively recent origin, now form a part of the educational system of various continental countries. In the royal architectural academy of Berlin instruction is given by more than 20 professors besides numerous assistants, and extends through from five to seven years. A certificate of builder is given after a two years' selected course and one year of practice; and that of architect after three years' study and two of practice. - Among the most valuable works on the subject of education are: Schwarz, Erziehungslehre (Leipsic, 1829); Cramer, Ge-schichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts in welthistorischer Entwickelung (Leipsic, 1832-'8); Cousin, "Report on Public Instruction in Prussia" (New York, 1835); Foster, "Educational Reform" (London, 1837); Bache, "Report on Education in Europe " (Philadelphia, 1839); Von Raumer, Geschichte der Pada-gogik seit dem Wiederaufbluhen classischer Studien (Stuttgart, 1843-'52); Fritz, Esquisse d'un systeme complet d'instruction et d'educa-tion (Strasburg, 1841-'3); E. D. Mansfield, "American Education" (New York, 1851); Henry Barnard, " National Education in Europe" (New York, 1854); Edison, "National Education" (London, 1855); Horace Mann, "Lectures on Education" (Boston, 1855); Thery, Histoire d'education en France (Paris, 1858); Wiese, Das hohere Schulwesen in Preus-sen (Berlin, 1864); Lowe, "Primary and Classical Education" (Edinburgh, 1867); Blake, "American Schools and Colleges" (London, 1867); Matthew Arnold, " Schools and Universities on the Continent" (London, 1868); Randall, "First Principles of Popular Education and Public Instruction " (New York, 1868); Staunton, " The Great Schools of England" (London, 1869); Arnott, "National Education" (London, 1869); Roberts, " National Education" (London, 1869); " Report on Education," by John W. Hoyt, United States commissioner on education to the Paris exposition of 1867 (Washington, 1870); J. W. Hoyt, "University-Progress" (New York, 1870); Encyclopadie des Erziehungs- und Unterrichswesens, edited by Dr. K. A. Schmid of Stuttgart (81st part, 1871); Barnard, "National Education," German States (New York, 1871); Randall, " History of the Common School System of the State of New York " (New York, 1871); Hazen, " The School and the Army in Germany and France " (New York, 1872); "Report of Committee of Council on Education for 1871-,2," Great Britain (London, 1872); Carl Rosenkranz, Die Padagogik als System (Berlin, 1847; English translation by Anna C. Brackett, St. Louis, 1873); Dr. G. A. Riecke, Erziehungslehre (3d ed., Stuttgart, 1873); Herbert Spencer, "Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical " (New York, 1873); "Education in Japan, a Series of Letters addressed by prominent Americans to Arinori Mori" (New York, 1873); Northrop, " Education Abroad " (New York, 1873); Rigg, " National Education in its Social Conditions and Aspects, and Public Elementary School Education, English and Foreign " (London, 1873). See also Luben's Padagogischer Jahresbericht, published annually at Leipsic; Wolfram's Allgemeine Chronik des Volksschul-wesens, published annually at Hamburg; annual reports of the United States bureau of education, beginning with 1870, also numerous circulars of information published by that bureau; and the annual reports of the superintendents and boards of education for the various states and cities of the United States.